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1.         (a) Apart from Mwea, name three other large irrigation schemes in Kenya                        

            (b) (i) Explain four conditions that made Mwea-Tebere a suitable location for an irrigation


                  (ii) Explain four problems facing farmers in Mwea irrigation scheme                          

           (c) State six benefits which Kenya derives from irrigation farming                                      

2          (a) A part from draining swamps, state two other methods used to reclaim land in Kenya.

            (b) State three benefits that resulted from the reclamation of Yala Swamp.                       

3.         (a) (i) Distinguish between land reclamation and land rehabilitation                               

                 (ii) Name any three methods of irrigation.                                                                       

                 (iii) State two advantages of irrigation over natural water supplies                                 

            (b) (i) Why was Mwea Tebere irrigation scheme initiated?                                                  

                 (ii) Explain four physical conditions that favoured the establishment of Mwea Irrigation


                 (iii) Give three problems that are faced in Mwea Irrigation Scheme                              

            (c) (i) What is a polder.                                                                                 

                  (ii) Describe how land is reclaimed and prepared in the Netherlands                            

                  (iii) Give any three benefits of the delta plan                                                                 

             (d) How does the above activity differ from that in Denmark?                                            

4.         Explain three problems caused by a large aging population                                   

5.         a) i) Apart from rice name two other crops grown under irrigation at mwea Tabere irrigation


                 ii) Explain four factors that favoured establishment of Mwea Tabere irrigation scheme

b) Give four problems associated with irrigation farming on R.Thiba & Nyamindi                      

c) Explain three benefits of Mwea Tabere irrigation scheme                                              

d)i) Name two other irrigation schemes in Kenya apart from Mwea Tabere                       

    ii) State three benefits of rice farming                                                                             

6.         (a) Differentiate between land reclamation and land rehabilitation                                  

            (b) Explain four methods of land reclamation in Kenya                                                      

            (c) Explain any two methods used in land reclamation and rehabilitation in Netherlands   

            (d) State four factors which influenced the establishment of Perkerra Irrigation Scheme   

 7.        (a) Explain two significance of irrigation farming in Kenya                                                

            (b) State three benefits of  syader see projects                                                                     

8.         (a) Name any three crops grown under irrigation farming in Kenya                       

            (b) (i) Explain four conditions that made Mwea Tebere a suitable location for irrigation farming

     (ii) Outline two aims of the tsetseflies control project in the Lambwe valley of Kenya 

                (iii) State four efforts being made to conserve water catchment areas of Kenya             

9.         (a) (i) What is a polder                                                                                                          

                 (ii) Name three crops grown in the polders.                                                                    

            (b) Describe the stages involved in the reclamation of land from the sea in the Netherlands

            (c) Explain four ways that the Netherlands benefited from the delta plan project               

            (d) State six problems experienced in irrigation farming in Kenya                                      

10.       a) A part from Mwea name three other large irrigation schemes in Kenya                          

            b) Explain four conditions that made  Mwea a suitable location for irrigation scheme       

            c) Explain four ways through which tenants have benefited from Mwea irrigation scheme

            d) Explain three problems faced by farmers in Mwea Tabere irrigation scheme                 

11.       (a) (i) Differentiate between land reclamation and land rehabilitation                                  

                 (ii) Name two methods of rehabilitating land in Kenya                                                   

             (b) (i) What is a polder                                                                                                         

     (ii) Name two crops grown in the polders                                                            

            (c) Describe the stages of reclamation of land from the sea in the Netherlands                   

            (d) (i) State three physical factors that influence the establishment of Pekerra irrigation scheme

                 (ii) Explain four significance of irrigation farming in Kenya                                         

12.       (a) (i) Differentiate between land reclamation and land rehabilitation                                  

                 (ii) List three ways in which tsetse fly menace was controlled in the Lambwe valley   

            (b) (i) Name two areas in Kenya where swamps have been reclaimed                                 

                 (ii) State four factors which influenced the establishment of Perkerra irrigation scheme

         (c) Explain three problems facing irrigation farming in Kenya                                              

         (d) List four benefits of the Delta plan project in Netherlands                                                

13.       (a) State two methods used to reclaim land in Kenya                                                           

            (b) Outline the stages through which land is reclaimed from the sea in the Netherlands     

14.       (a) List four types of wasteland that can be reclaimed                                                         

             (b) Give two advantages of irrigation farming compared to rain fed farming


1.         a) – Perkerra                                                                                                                         

– ahero

– KAno

– Bunyala

– Bura

– Hola

bi) – The black cotton clay soils found in the area suitable for irrigation because they

     retain water

– The gentle-sloping land enables water to reach the farm by gravity                       

– Presence of rivers Thiba and Nyamidi provides regular and abundant water for irrigation

– The un-reliable and inadequate rainfall received in the area makes it necessary for irrigation

– More land is available for future expansion

– Availability of labour from high population

         ii)  – Stagnant ware encourages its breeding of snails and mosquitoes increasing

              incidences of   Bilharzia and malaria                                                                                       

– Quelea birds which feed on rice grain lowers drop yield

– Siltation in canals reduces capacity to hold enough water for irrigation

– Fluctuating water volumes reduces water for irrigation

– Poor marketing strategies

– Delayed payment to farmers lowers their morale

– Shortage of capital to finance farming activities such as ploughing

     c)   – The scheme produces the bulky of Kenya’s rice saving foreign exchange                      

– The scheme provides employment and income to thousands of people

– Roads have been constructed in the area to transport rice form fields to markets

– Social amenities like schools and hospitals have been provided improving standards of living

– Floods that used to occur during rainy season have been controlled

– The scheme has provided land to landless people enabling them to grow food crops

2.         a)        – Irrigation of dry lands.                                                                                                    

                        – Clearing jungles.

                        – Tsetse fly control.

                        – Afforestation

          b)         – Flooding in the Yala and Nzoia plains has been controlled.                                               

                        – Hectares of land has been reclaimed for agricultural and settlement purposes.

                        – The project has brought water borne diseases under control.

3.         a) i) Land reclamation is bringing back the useless land into more useful while land    

                    rehabilitation is  bringing the land that has been misused by man into being useful

ii) – Basin irrigation                                                                                                             

                – Overhead irrigation/ drip

                – Trickle irrigation

                – Canal irrigation

               – Shadoof Archimedean screw, sakia water wheel

          iii) – Irrigation ensures a steady and reliable supply even in arid area while rainfall may

                    fail in a  given year                                                                                                   

                 – River water used for irrigation may may bring in silt which makes soil fertile and

               leads   to more yields unlike pure rain water

                – Enables cultivation throughout the year maximizing use of land while rainfall could be


               –  Water drawn for irrigation may also be used for other purposes in the farm

b i) – To settle the landless people                                                                                             

            – The presence of rivers Thiba and Nyamindi

            – Availability of the black cotton soils – good for rice

            – To employee detainees during the days of emergency

            – Unreliable nature of rainfall in the area

        ii) – Availability of reliable water supplies from river Thiba                                                         

            -Presence of fertile black cotton soils with high water retaining ability

            – Gently sloping land making it easy to mechanize and cheaply irrigate by gravity flow

            – Presence of high temperatures favouring rice groing

            – The unreliable nature of the rainfall made it necessary to irrigate

            – The soils were impervious thereby reducing the need to build concrete hence lowering


          iii) – Disease – malaria & bilharzias                                                                                             

            – A lot of time is spent to tend crops

            – Presence of numerous weeds

            – Mismanagement of the scheme

            – Delayed payment to the farmers

            – Few extension officers

            – Pests i.e. quela birds

            – Siltation in the canals

            – Expensive human labour

c i) A polder is an area of low – lying reclaimed land enclosed by dykes, which protect

   the  land against high water level that has to be maintained outside the area     

        ii) – Construction of ring canals to drain water out                                                                       

            – Construction of ditches within each polder which leads water to a pumping station

            – Drying of land through planting of trees/ plants

            – Desalination of the soil through chemical, flushing and planting hardy plants

            – Dividing of land into economic units

            – Laying down of good infrastructure

            – Settling of people in villages

            – Spreading of soils to improve fertility

            – Addition of fertilizers

     iii)- Control of floods of the area to the South West                                                             

            – Improved control and distribution of the regions fresh water

            – Damming has cut off salination and pollution of inlnd waters. This has led to the

             reduction of     salinity of soil hence high yields

            – Islands that were isolated are now within easy reach of developed areas

            – The area is a good site for industry and a tourist resort

. d)   – Artificial insemination  A.I is more widely used in Denmark than Kenya                               

– There is an experience of high quality yields throughout the year

– In Kenya, there is a practice of mixed farming while there is specialized farming in Denmark

– Dairy product in Kenya are consumed locally whereas they are for export in Denmark

– In Denmark it is highly mechanized while in Kenya it is low mechanized

– In Denmark, it is evenly distributed all over the country than in Kenya where it is

   concentrated in highlands

– Denmark dairy farming rely on fodder while Kenya depends mainly on grass pasture

– Denmark has got an advanced technology in preservation of dairy products in Kenya

– Denmark has got a well managed co-operative societies than Kenya

4.       Heavy expenditure by the government in giving them pensions, money that could  have  

               been  used to improve other sectors of the economy                                                         

  • Through economically unproductive, they require care and feeding which is expensive
  • Through unproductive economically, they require people to take care of them, hence wasting man power that could be used on productive ventures   

5.         a i)    – Maize                                                                                                                                  

  • Beans
  • Tomatoes
  • Vegetables

ii)  – Availability of gently slopping land that allowed irrigation water to move by natural

         force of Gravity                                                                                                                     

  • Availability of permanent source of water from R. Thiba and Nyamindi which provided water for irrigation throughout the year
  • Existence of black cotton soils (clay) which hold water on the surface longer for use in irrigation fields
  • Sparse population in the region which reduced the cost of resettlement

– Stagnant irrigation water in the fields serve as breeding grounds for water bone   diseases       nectars e.g. bilhazia workers and mosquitoes                                                              

  • Leaching of the soils due to over irrigation
  • Mono culture which reduces productivity of the soil
  • Interference with the life’s of the people and animals who depend on the waters of these lines down stream                     

. c) –  The scheme has created employment which has improved the living standards

       of the people                                                                                                            

  • It has saved foreign exchange through production of rice that could be otherwise imported/ which is invested in other sectors of the economy
  • It has facilitated urbanization e.g. Mwea town which has expanded trade opportunities
  • Has increased productivity by turning less productive land. Hence adding food for consumption and sale to get income

d i)      – Perkerra irrigation scheme                                                                                             

  • Yala swamp reclamation/ Bunyala
  • Ahero irrigation scheme
  • Bura
  • Nola
  • West Kano

ii)  – Is a source of carbohydrates                                                                       

  • Rice foliage is used as fodder
  • It is a source of income through sale of rice 

6.         a) Land reclamation is the process by which wasteland is converted into farmland for

                 growing crops  and  keeping animals.                                                                                  

              – Land rehabilitation is a  process of restoring land to  its former productivity.

. b)       –  Irrigation                                                                                                               

  • Drainage of swamps.
  • Tsetse fly control and clearing of jungles
  • Afforestation

             c)    –  Land reclamation by drawing rivers & marshlands                                           

– Upgrading sandy and barren areas through. Use of fertile soil or application of fertilizer

d)    –   To control the seasonal flood of river  peskerra.                                                           

  • To utilize excess water  of  river pekerra that used  to go to waste.
  • Presence of flat and gently sloping terrain which enables flow water by gravity.
  • Fertile loamy soil.
  • Dry condition of the area.  

7.         (a)     –   Improvement of standard of living.                                                                               

  • Settlement of the landless.
  • Saving  on foreign exchange.
  • Rehabilitation and development of the areas.
  • Con troll of environmental hazards.
  • Creation of employment.
  • Growth of urban centres.
  • Availability .

b)    –   Creating of a large fresh water lake in the middle of the country lake ijssel

  • The reclamation polders have attract towns that love improved infrastructure & social amenities.
  • Has shortened the coastline distance by about 32km.
  • The protection of high titles by dykes.
  • Lake ijssel have help in reducing the salt content of the neighbouring regions.
  • The total flooding on the coastilen are ahs been completely reduced.
  • Reclaimed land is fertile and suitable for liable cultivation producing crops such as wheat.
  • The slayer sea has  improved the drainage .
  • Reclaimed areas are used for settlement recreation and industry

8.         (a) – Rice                                                                                                                              

– Onions

– Green grams

– Pepper

b i)    – Presence of rivers Thiba and Nyamidi which provide water for irrigation                 

  • Gently sloping land enabled water to reach the farms by force f gravity
  • Extensive land for future expansion of the scheme
  • Fertile soils in the area which were suitable for crop production
  • Sparse population which made it easy and cheap to resettle people
  • Low supply of rainfall received necessitated irrigation

 ii)   – To eradicate tsetse flies and hence provide conducive healthy living conditions

           for man and   animals                                                                                                        

– To enhance the keeping of quality livestock in the area

– To provide land for farming

– To provide land for human settlement

             iii)  – Building gabions to check the speed of water

– Agro-forestry

– Re-afforestation

– Gazettement of forested areas to discourage human settlement and human activities

9.           a i) Is land in the Netherlands that has been reclained from the sea and enclosed by dykes.

ii) – Rye                      – Tomatoes                – Flowers                                          

       – Barley              -Oat                             – Fodder crops

     – Suagr beet         – Potatoes                  – Wheat

b) –  Protective dykes/sea walls are constructed enclosing the part of the sea to be reclaimed.

             – Rings canals are constructed.

– Pumbing stations are installed to pumb out sea water from the area enclosed by the dyke.

– Water is pumbed out of the area enclosed by the dyke

– Drainage ditches and more pumbing stations are made on the land being reclaimed.

– Drainage pipes are laid below the soil.

– The area is divided into rectangular portions using. inner dykes and ring canal.

– The drained land is flushed with fresh water to remove salt from the soil.

– Soils are treated with chemicals to remove salinity

– Pumbing water from the polders is a continuous process to prevent water from   

  accumulating  in the reclaimed land.

10.      a )        Ahero                           Perkerra                  Hola/ bura                                        

            West kano                 Mitunguu                       

Dana                          katila                           Kibwezi

Taveta                                    Gezira                        Bunyala

. b)    – The area was sparsely populated thus making it easy and cheap to resettle the people  

– The presence of river Thiba and Nyamindi which would provide water for irrigation

– The black cotton soil in the area which was suitable for irrigation because they retain water

– The fertile soil was suitable for crop production

– The gentle land would allow water to reach the farm through gravity

– The unreliable/ inadequate rainfall received in the area made it necessary for irrigation     to be   practiced

   c )     – People who live in the area were originally nomads but now lead a settled life              

– Farmers earn income after selling rice and other crops which enables them to improve their    standard of living

– Tenants have access to credit facilities which they use to improve crop production

– The establishment of the scheme has created employment opportunities for the people in the    area

– Roads linking the scheme to the market centers have been improved 

   d)      – Stagnant water encourages breeding of snails and mosquitoes which spread bilharzias

               and   malaria respectively                                                                                                         

– Silting of canals/ weeds in the canals reduce the flow of water into fields. The farmers spend   extra time and money dredging the canals

– Delayed/ low payment discourage farmers

– Diseases and pests e.g. giulea birds attack the crop which lead to low yield of rice

– Expensive farm inputs such as fertilizer reduce the framers profit margin

– Roads are rendered impassable during rainy seasons hence delaying delivery of rice and other crops to the market

11.      a i) -Land reclamation is the process through which unproductive land is made useful

                   for agriculture or settlement where as land rehabilitation is the process of restoring

                  land to its  former productive state.                                                                                          

           ii)  – Afforestation.                                                                                                               

– Reafforestation.

– Bush fallowing.

– Use of grass strip and cover crops.

– Mulching.

-Constructing bunds (making ridges of soil across a slope)

– Manuring.

– Constructing of cut-off drains (digging open trenches across slopes.)

– Controlling grazing (division of land into paddocks, allowing different sections found to

   regain pasture.

– Construction of drainage trenches (digging trenches to drain off excess water)

             b i) – Is land in Netherlands that has been reclaimed from the sea and enclosed hot dykes.

    ii) – Rye                  – Oat               – Wheat                      – Barley          – Potatoes     

       –  Sugarcane     – Flowers       – Tomatoes                – Fodder crops

(c)  – Protective dykes /sea walls are constructed enclosing the part of the sea to be reclaimed.

                        – Ring canals are constructed on the interior sides of the dykes.

                 – Pumping stations are installed to pump out sea water from the area enclosed by the dykes.

            – Reeds are planted to help dry out the soil and prevent weeds from growing.

            – Drainage ditches and more pumping stations are made on the land being  reclaimed.

            – Drainage pipes are laid below the soil.

– The area is divided into portions using inner dykes and  ring   canals.

– The soils are treated with chemicals to lower salinity.

– The drained land is flushed with fresh water.

– Pumping out water from the polder is a continuous process to prevent water from

   accumulating  in the reclaimed land.                

d i) – The presence of River Perkerra which is a tributary of Suguta river in Kerio Valley   

      provide water for irrigation.                                                                                      

– Gently sloping land which permits the flow of water by gravity hence reducing costs of

   pumping water to the fields.

– Presences of clay soils rich in mineral nutrients enables variety of crops to be grown.

– Presence of extensive land which makes large scale cultivation of crops possible.

– The area is semi-arid hence the need for irrigation farming.

         ii)-  Farmers earn incomes which improve their standards of living.                            

– Irrigation schemes have created settlement for landless people.

– Many people have been employed in the farms and other sectors within the irrigation schemes

  such as transport and processing factories.

– It has facilitated reclamation of unproductive land, thus increasing land for farming. This

  has led to increase in food production.

– Some crops grown through irrigation are exported, thus earning foreign exchange. The

  rice grown in irrigation schemes meets most of the domestic requirements thus saving

  foreign   exchange that would have been used to import it.

– It has facilitated development of infrastructure in the irrigated areas. Roads have been

  built to  help in the transportation of inputs and commodities.

– Social amenities such as schools and hospitals have been  constructed thus improving

 the   level of literacy and health of  the people in the irrigation schemes.

– Industries that use raw materials produced on the irrigation schemes have been developed.

– Rice mills have been established on the rice irrigation schemes.

– Some market centres in the irrigation schemes have grown in size due to increased

  trading  activities e.g. Wanguru in Mwea irrigation and Margat near Perkerra irrigation scheme.

12.       (a)  i) Land reclamation is the practice by which less useful land is converted into more

                     useful land  While Land rehabilitation is the process of recovery/restoration of land

                     which has been misused  and destroyed through human activities                           

              ii)          – Bush clearing                                                                                                  

                                     – Sterilization of the male fly

                                     – Use of traps

                                      – Spraying /use of insecticide

                                      -Creation of buffer zones

                                      – Killing or transfer of hosts

               b) (i) – Yala                                                                                                                                 

                      – Bunyala

                      – Kalusi (maragua-Euelyptus)

          ii) – The need to control seasonal floods from river Perkerra                                       

                – The presence of river Perkerra as a source of water for  irrigation

                – Availability of fertile loaming soils

               – The area is gently sloping

         – The dry condition of the area necessitated the  use of irrigation

         – The need to occupy the large population of ex-detained in  a productive way   

       c) – The stagnant water in the plot and lands encourages  the breeding of snails and

            mosquitoes which spread Bilharzias and  malaria. this weakens the farmer causing

           low labour input hence  low production                                                                                      

         – Mismanagement of the irrigation  projects leading to the collapse of several schemes

        – Pest and diseases are attack the crops leading to low production(mention of pest here is

           important i.e. quelea bird)

       – Poor payment for farm produce which discourages the farmers

       – Poor extension services to provide for the badly needed technical advice to farmers

          leading to low    productivity.

      – Shortage of water during dry season reduced the land under  cultivation and hence

            reduced    earnings

       – Frequent silting of canals which  is expensive to dredge reduces  the  amount of water

             required  for irrigation

      – Inadequate labour which is largely required in  the schemes hence burdening the farmer to

            hire   for planting, weeding and harvesting which reduce the profits obtained.

. d) – Floods caused by the tiles has been completely checked by construction  of dams and dykes

        – The dams  and dykes have  completely  cut off movement  of salty sea water inland

       – There is  plenty of fresh water for domestic and industrial use

      – The distance from Missigen to Rotter  dam was shortened by 50KM opening up the area 

          for industrialization

      – More recreational opportunities were created by the newly formed lakes becoming a tourist


13.      a)     –  Irrigation                                                                                                                   

– Control of pests  and diseases

– Afforestration/reforestration

– Control of floods

– Control  of soil erosion /construction of gabions

b)   – Protective  dykes/sea wells are  constructed  enclosing the  part of  the sea to be reclaimed

– Ring canals are  constructed

– Pumping  stations are  installed to pump out sea water from  the area  enclosed

– Reeds are  sown to both   absorb excess salts

– Soil is  treated with chemical to lower salinity

– The  drained  land is flashed with  fresh  water to remove salt  from soil

14.       a)       –  Swamps                                                                                                                

– Dry lands

– Eroded lands

                       – Pest and disease infested

 b)      – Regular and reliable                                                                                                         

  – Silt increases fertility

– All year farming

– Reduces year farming

– Reduces salitility of soil

            – Dams control floods/ are used for fishing

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