1.      a) Composite volcano                                                                                                     

         b)i)What are earthquakes?                                                                                                          

            ii) Name two types of earthquakes waves                                                                               

            iii) Explain three ways in which volcanic mountains positively influence human activities

2.          a) Using well labeled diagrams, distinguish between a simple symmetrical fold and an

                asymmetrical fold.                                                                                                             

            b) i) Name two fold mountains of the Alpine Orogeny                                                        

                ii) With the aid of well labeled diagrams, describe how a fold mountain is formed.       

            c) Explain three positive effects of folding on the physical & human environment.           

3.         (a) State three ways in which the earth’s crust is affected by the earthquakes                    

            (b) State two evidences of continental drift theory                                                          

            (c) Name three types of plate tectonic boundaries                                                          

4.         (a) (i) What are tectonic plates                                                                                              

                (ii) Give any two examples of oceanic plates:-                                                                 

          (b) Describe how the following cause earth movements:

               (i) Isostatic adjustment                                                                                                       

               (ii) Magma movement in the crust                                                                                     

               (iii) Convectional currents in the mantle.                                                                           

5.         (a) Give any two natural causes of earthquakes                                                                    

(b) Name three characteristics of the rift valley lakes of Kenya                                          

6.         (a) State three characteristics of the rift valley lakes of Kenya                                            

            (b)(i) What are earth quakes?                                                                                                

                (ii)Name three types of earth quake waves                                                                      

           c). Differentiate between extension boundaries and compression boundaries.                      

7          a. i) What is an earthquake                                                                                                    

                ii) Give two ways in which earthquakes can be predicted                                                

            b) State two ways in which faulting interferes with transport and communication lines.    

8.         The diagram below represents a feature resulting form faulting

(a) Name the feature                                                                                                              

(b) Name part x and y                                                                                                            

(c) Give three negative of an earthquake                                                                              

9.         (a) Differentiate between hot springs and geysers                                                                 

(b) The feature below show an extrusive landform in a volcanic area

(c) Using well labelled diagrams, describe how the following are formed:

               (i) An anticlinal fault                                                                                                          

              (ii) An overthrust fold                                                                                                         

(d) (i) Explain any three ways in which features resulting from volcanicity are a problem

          to people                                                                                                                       

                (ii) Describe how subsidence can lead to formation of a caldera.                                     

10.       (a) What is the plate tectonic theory ?                                                                                   

            (b) Name three types of tectonic plate boundaries    .                                                          

             (c) Explain two evidences that support continental drift theory.                                         

11.       (a) (i) Name two fold mountains in Africa apart from Atlas mountains                          

                 (ii) Differentiate between symmetrical and asymmetrical folds                             

                 (iii) Apart from symmetrical and asymmetrical folds, name other types of folds       

            (b) (i) With the aid of well labeled diagrams explain the formation of fold mountains     

                 (ii) Give two-examples of fold mountains in North America                                    

12.       a)  Effects of the elliptical shape of the earths orbit

            b) Mention three causes of the earth movements                                                                

13.       a) List two characteristics of destructive plate boundary                                                     

            b) Outline three natural causes of earthquakes                                                                     

            b) State two effects of earthquakes on crystal rocks                                                             

14.       a) List two factors that determine the degree of folding in rocks                                         

            b) State three effects of faulting on drainage systems                                                          

15.       (a) State any one evidence that support the theory of the drifting of continents                  

            (b)(i) Apart from Africa, name any two other continents that form the Gondwanaland     

                (ii) What is panthalassa?                                                                                                    

16.       a)  Give two reasons why hardwood trees species in Kenya are in danger of extraction    

b) State three problems that affect forestry in Canada                                                        

17.       The diagram below shows a simple fold            

(a) (i) Name the part marked A, B and C

ii) Name two fold mountains outside Africa                                                                         

               (iii) Give thee landform associated with folded regions                                                    

        (b) With the aid of well labeled diagram describe the process of formation of Fold Mountain    

       (c) Explain four ways in which folding influences human activities     


1.      a)   – it  has  vertical vent/pipe                                                                                                        

  • compose  of alternating layers of ash/pyrodast and lava
  • it  is conical in shape  /steep sided
  • it  has side  vents
  • it has conelets/parasitic cones  on the sides
  • at  the peak, it  may  have a  caldera /crater/plug

     b i) Earth quakes are sudden earth movement which cause vibrations/trembling within the crust√√  

       ii)        – primary/push/p-waves                                                                                              s

                  – secondary/shear waves/shake waves/s-waves

– longitudinal/L-waves/lore waves/Raleigh waves

 iii)   – volcanic  mountains re  sources  of  rivers  which  provide  water for

             domestic/agricultural/industrial  use                                                                               

  • volcanic  mountains  have  forests  which provide  valuable timber used in  building and construction industries
  • volcanic  mountains influence  formation  of  relief rainfall which encourages  agricultural activities
  • volcanic  mountains  modify temperatures  making them attractive to human   settlements


  • Formed when compressional forces of equal magnitude and of moderate strength act on crustal rocks
  • The rocks bend evenly and the anticline is symmetrical about its axis
  • Results from unequal compressional forces acting on crustal rocks
  • One of the forces is slightly stronger than the other resulting to limbs that are assymetrical about the axis 

           b i)      – Atlas mountains of Africa                                                                                    

            – Alps mountains of Europe

            – Himalayas mountain of Asia

            – Rockies of N. America

            – Andes of S. America

         b ii) – An extensive depression called a geosynclines is formed on the surface of the earth            – The geosynclines is then filled with water to form a sea

  • The surrounding land masses are eroded and resultant materials deposited in the geosyncline in layers
  • Accumulation and weight of sediments causes the floor of the geosycline to subside further
  • Further subsidence of the geosynclines triggers off compressional forces drawing higher grounds close
  • The layers of sediment in the geosynclines are the folded bending upwards form mountains

c)     – Fold mountains are often forested on their windward slopes and provide valuable

                timber for construction                                                                                                             

            – The windward slopes receive rainfall hence supports agriculture

            –   Heavy rainfall and snow that collects in some fold mountains give rise to rivers which

                 in turn provide water for both domestic &industrial use

            –  The process of folding could bring valuable minerals to the surface cutting down the

            cost  of mining e.g. coal in Appalaction

– The unique mountains landscape attracts tourist thus earning the country foreign


3.         a) – earthquakes causes  lateral and vertical  displacement  of  rocks                                  

  • they cause raising  and lowering and down warping of  parts of  the sea  floor
  • it causes landslides/slumping
  • it leads  to faulting  of the c rust
  • they lead  to  volcanic eruptions

  b) – The jig saw fit of continental magins e.g. Southern Africa and Southern America  

– Spreading of the ocean floor- rocks are younger at the oceanic trenches and younger


– Geological evidence i.e. the rock structure in some continents are similar e.g. South Africa   and South America meaning that they were together

– Palaeoclimatic evidence, similar fossils/ remains have been found in different continents

 c)     – Extension boundary/ divergence                                                                    

  • Comprisin/ convergence
  • Transform fault boundary
  • Conservative boundary

4.         a i) Tectonic plates are seirigid blocks that form the earth’s crust                                          

           ii) –  Pacific plate                                                                                                                 

   – Nazca plate        

       . b i) This disrupts the balance between the sial and sima causing movement of continental  


          ii) This force themselves in cracks/crevices displacing crustal rocks                         

         iii) These cause frictional drug/pull on the crustal rocks causing their movement                 

5.         a)     -Isostatic adjustments                                                                                                          

-Gravitation pressure

-Tectonic movement

-Magma movement (volcanic activities)

-Energy release in upper mantle  

. b)    -primary (P) waves                                                                                                   

-secondary (S) waves

-surface longitudinal waves                      

6.         a) -they are long deep and narrow                                                                                  

-most of them are salty

-they are fault lakes            

            b)i) -They are sudden earth movement which cause trembling/vibration within the earth’s                


               (ii)   – Primary/ puse waves/p. waves.                                                                        

                      – Secondary/shear/S. waves

– Longitudinal/love/L. waves

     c ) Extension boundaries are zones where tectonic planets diverge or move away from

         each other.  Space may be created and magma fill the space found in between. While

        compress ional  boundaries are zones where tectonic plates moves towards each other.

      There is thus destruction  of materials found at the edges

7.         a i)      – Is a sudden and rapid movement/tremor of the earth crust.                         

            ii)- Use of change of velocity of seismic waves                                                            

  – Use of exotic pre-quake signals.

      b)  – Faulting causes disjointing of the land which results in disruption of transport and

               communication lines.                                                                                                     

– The presence of fault scarps can cause difficulty in construction of transport and

   communication lines.

– It is expensive to construct and communication lines in faulted region. 

8.         a) reverse fault                                                                                                                    

             b) X-up throw                                                                                                                      

               Y-down throw

. c) – Fire outbreaks                                                                                                            

             -destruction of transport and communication lines

               -loss if life and properties/collapse of buildings

              – Change directions of rivers flow

9.         a) -hot springs  are  place where hot water or  steam is emitted from the ground while

                geysers are   jep of  hot water  or steam and  gasses which  are  ejected explosively

               from   fissure  in the  ground                                                                                        

            b) A-crates                  B-plug           C-strato volcano

      c) i)        – Crustal rock layers are subjected to compressional forces

– This leads to formation of a massive article /up fold

– Further compression to the same crustal rocks causes stress/tension at the crest of the  anticline

– Eventually a crack/fault and around the crust of the anticline called an anticline fault

c ii)  – Crustal rock layers are subjected to compressional forces                                          

– Intense folding results into formation of an overfold

– With increased pressure the over fold is compressed further to form a recumbent fold

– When pressure if very great, a fracture occurs along the axis producing a thrust plane

 to form  an overthrust fold

           d i)  – Volcanic mountains experience low rainfall on their  leeward slopes making them                    

                   unsuitable   for agriculture/settlement/forestry                                                                 

       – Volcanic mountains have steep slopes which hinder transport and communication

       – Some volcanic features like moffetes, solfataras steam jets produce poisonous which     

       pollute  the environment/are harmful to people

             – Some volcanic rock weather to form infertile solid unsuitable for agriculture/forestry

     d ii) – Outpouring of Lava forms a volcanic cone                                                                 

– When the pressure beneath stops, a hollow, void is left beneath

– The weight of the overlying cone leads to collapse of the top of the cone into the how-

   /void    beneath

– This leaves a wide depression at the top of the volcano called a caldera

10.      a) –  It is a theory that states that the crust is divided into blocks of land (plates) that

                    float and move towards, away or parallel                                                             

 b)  – Compressional boundary                                                                                         

  • Extension boundary
  • Transform fault boundary                    

       c)  – Geological evidence – Rock similarities in structure, age and type of rocks found in

              various continents e.g. in Eastern coast of S. America and Western coast of Africa                  

  • Jig- saw- fit – of continental coastlines. Some coastlines can fit each other when pulled together e.g. Western coast of Africa can fit with Eastern coast of South America
  • Ancient glaciations – All the four Southern continents reveal signs of a period of large scale glaciations at one time. It is evidenced by presence of glacial deposits – Tillites produced by ice sheets in Southern continents
  • Archeological evidence – Some plant and animal remains found in various continents show a striking similarity                      

11.       a i)    – Atlas                                                                                                                    

– Cape ranges

– Akwapim

           ii)  – Atlas                                                                                                                         

– Cape ranges

– Akwapim

         iii)-  Symmetrical folds have limbs dipping uniformly about the axis while asymmetrical                 fold one limb is steeper than the other about the axis

b i)   – Extensive shallow depression called geosynclinal develop                                    

– Sediments from high areas are deposited in the geosyncline

– Compression on either side push towards geosyncline

           – Sediments compress to form fold mountains which rise above sea level to form fold


b ii)            – Over fold                                                                                                  

– Recumbent folds

– Nappe or overthrust fold

– Anticlinical/ synclinal fold

– Isoclinal

12.      a) – Causes seasons                                                                                                         

– Varying lengths of day and night time

– Changes in the position of the mid-day sun at different times of the year

– Causes eclipses

        b)      – Movement of magma within the crust                                                                               

– Gravitational force towards the center of the earth

– Convectional currents in the mantle

            – Isostatic adjustment of sial and sima layer     

13.      a)  – Frequent earthquakes                                                                                              

              – Presence of faults

            – Presence of fold mountains

b)     –  Tectonic movements                                                                                                        

– Volcanicity

– Gravitative pressure

– Isostatic adjustment

                                     – Energy release in the mantle

14.      a)   – Nature and age of the rocks                                                                                    

          – Intensity of compression forces

           . b)  –  May cause a river to disappear                                                                           

– Changes the rivers direction of flow

– Forms depressions hat are filled with water forming lakes

            – Faulting across a river forms waterfalls

15.      a) – The jig-saw fit√                                                                                                 

   – Glaciatean/ancient glaciation√

  – The coal deposits√

  – Sea floor spreading√

b i) – Australia√                                                                                                                    

– South Africa√

       ii) this was the water body  that occupied the region surrounding the  pangae           

16.      a)   – High demand for hard wood has led to over exploitation                                  

  • They take long to mature hence can not match the exploitation rate
  • Population pressure has led to cutting trees to give room for settlement and agriculture

b)      –  Accidental fires which destroy the forests                                                                    

  • The Northern part is inaccessible (during winter) for exploitation of the forests
  • Over exploitation in some areas
  • Trees take long to mature due to cold climate
  • Rugged landscape especially mountainous landscape makes exploitation difficult

17. (a) i)         A-axis                 B-syncline      C-limb of a fold  

ii) – The rockets                                                                                                                    

  • Andes
  • Himalayas
  • Alps
  • Appalachians

          iii)   – fold mountain                                                                                                             

  • cuesta
  • escarpment
  • plateus
  • basins     

b)        – Geosynclines are formed on the earths surface

– prolonged  and extensive erosion occurs  on the  surrounding higher grounds

– sediments are deposited in the geosyncline forming thick layers

– the weight of the sediments causes subsistence  of the geosyncline leading  to

             accumulation of more  sediments

– further subsidence of the geosyncline triggers off compressional forces which draw the

 higher   grounds closet forming fold mountains

c) – Fold Mountains are water catchments area. They brap rainfall which rivers which that

            provide water for domestics  use                                                                                    

– fold mountains are often forested and provide valuable timber used in construction

              and building industry(due to high rainfall)

– some fold mountains have valuable mineral deposits  such as coal and petroleum for  mining

– fold mountains  influence transport  system enter as  barriers  or as passed