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1          (a) (i) State the difference between land reclamation and land rehabilitation.                      

             (ii) Other than tree planting, give three other methods employed in rehabilitation of land.           

            (b) (i) State three objectives that led to the establishment of Mwea Irrigation Scheme in Kenya

                  ii) Explain four human problems that face irrigation farming in Kenya.                                   

2.         (a) Describe the stages followed in the reclamation of land from the sea in Netherlands    

            (b) State four benefits of the delta plan to the Netherlands.                                                 

3.         (a) (i) Name two districts in Rift valley where maize is grown in plantations.                    

                 (ii) Describe maize production from planting to harvesting.                                            

            (b)  Outline the significance of maize growing in Kenya.                                                    

4.         Explain three problems facing maize farmers in Kenya.                                                     

5.         (a) Name two exotic breeds of dairy cattle reared in Kenya.                                                

            (b) Give three reasons why the Kenya highlands are suitable for dairy farming.                

6.         (a) Name two horticultural crops grown in Kenya                                                                

            (b) State three reasons why horticulture is more developed in the Netherlands than in Kenya.

7.         (a) Name two horticultural crops that are produced in Kenya                                             

            (b) Explain two reasons why horticultural produce is exported by air                                 

8.         (a) (i) What is nomadic pastoralism?                                                                                     

                 (ii) State three characteristics of nomadic pastoralism                                                    

9.         a)i) Name three exotic breeds of dairy cattle kept in Kenya                                   

    ii) Apart from milk name three other dairy products                                                        

b)i) State three factors which favour the rearing of dairy cattle in Kenya highlands          

   ii) Explain four problems facing dairy farmers in Kenya                                                 

c) i)  Compare dairy farming in Kenya and Netherlands                                                     

                ii) Name two dairy plants in Kenya                                                                                             

10.       (a) Name two dairy breed found in the lowlands of Kenya                                                  

            (b) State three problems that have hindered the dairy activities in the Kenya highland      

11.       a) State three physical factors that favour wheat farming in Kenya                                   

b) Give three problems facing wheat farming in Kenya                                                     

12.       (a) Name ;

                   (i) Three provinces in Kenya where wheat is grown on commercial scale                   

                  (ii) Three wheat producing provinces in Canada                                                           

            (b) Explain three conditions that favour wheat farming in Kenya                                       

(c) Explain five factors which enable Canada to produce more wheat than Kenya              

(d) State three importance of wheat to the economy of Canada                                          

13.        (a) Name three districts in Kenya where wheat is grown on large scale                             

            (b) Account for any four physical conditions needed for the growth of wheat                    

            (c) Describe the cultivation of wheat under the following:-

             (i) Processing of wheat                                                                                                         

                (ii) Marketing of wheat                                                                                                      

            (d)  (i) Explain two problems facing wheat farmers in Kenya                                              

      (ii) Give two reasons why Canada produces more wheat than Kenya                             (2mks)

14.       (a) State three physical conditions that favour sugarcane cultivation in Western Kenya    

            (b) Give two reasons why we need to encourage dairy farming in Kenya                           

15.       (a) (i) Apart from Ghana name two other countries that produces cocoa in Africa              

                 (ii) State three physical conditions that favour large scale cocoa farming in Ghana      

            (b) Outline the stages cocoa goes through from harvesting to the time it is ready for export

             (c) Explain three problems experienced by cocoa farmers in Ghana                                  

16.       (a) (i) What is horticulture                                                                                                                           

                 (ii) Horticulture is more developed in the Netherlands is more developed in the Netherlands

                       than in Kenya. Give four reasons for this                                                                  

                  (iii) Give three reasons why the growing of flowers in green house is preferred in Kenya

17.       Give four physical factors favouring wheat –growing in Kenya                                          

18.       (a) State two physical conditions favoring dairy farming in the Kenya highlands               

            (b) Compare dairy farming in Kenya and Denmark under the following headings:-

                (i) Feeding of the animals                                                                                                  

                (ii) Marketing of the products                                                                                            

19.       (a) Name two exotic breeds of beef cattle reared in Kenya                                                  

            (b) State three physical conditions that favour beef farming in Argentina                          

20.       (a) The figure below shows wheat growing province of Canada

(i) Name the provinces marked X , Y and Z                                                             

                (ii) State two physical factors favouring wheat farming in the named provinces above  

            (b) Give one province where coffee is grown on large scale in Kenya                                

21.       a) Differentiate between horticulture and market gardening                                                 

            b) State three factors that favour horticultural industry in Kenya                                        

22.       a) Define nomadic pastoralism                                                        

            b) Give three characteristics of pastoral farming in Kenya                                                  

 23.      a) Give four reasons why there has been a steady increase of milk production in Kenya in

                 the recent past                                                                                                                   

            b) Give similarities between dairy farming in Kenya and Denmark                                    

            c) Explain three benefits of dairy farming in Kenya                                                            

24.       The table below shows horticultural crop production in Kenya

CropQuantity in tonnes
flowers42, 500
oranges22, 600
tomatoes20, 300
carrots15, 400

            (a) (i) Draw a divided rectangle 15cm long to represent horticultural crop production in 

                      Kenya in  the year 2000 using the data above.                                                                                     

            (a)  (i) Calculate the range of the above data                                                            

                 (ii) What is the percentage of horticultural crop with the lowest tonnage?                                 

            (b) (i) State two advantages of using divided rectangle to represent geographical information.   

                 (ii) State two climatic conditions that favour horticultural crops in Kenya                     

            (c) Explain four problems facing horticultural farming in Kenya                                        

25.      (a) Name three main breeds of dairy cattle reared in Kenya                                                 

            (b) State three benefits of dairy farming in Kenya                                                               

26.       (a) Name two leading export commodities from Kenya                                                       

             (b) State three problems facing trade in Kenya                                                                   

27.       (a) State any three roles played by livestock in the economy                                             

            (b) Identify any two solutions to problems facing pastoralists in the Northern part of Kenya              

28.       (a) List two economic factors that influence  Agriculture                                                     

            (b) (i) List two uses of cocoa                                                                                                 

                (ii) State one economic problem experienced in cocoa farming in Ghana                       

29.       (a) Differentiate between horticulture and market gardening                                           

            (b) Name two main   types of flowers grown in Kenya                                                        

             (c) What problem do farmers in Kenya face in carrying out this activity?                          

30.       (a) State three ways in which drought affect the agricultural sector in Kenya.                   

            (b) State three reasons why the government of Kenya is encouraging bee keeping in the


31.       (a) List three social factors that influence Agriculture.                                                        

            (b) State two factors that favour mechanization of wheat farming in Canada.                    

32.       (a) State three climatic factors that favour the growing of oil palm in Nigeria.                  

            (b) State any two products obtained from oil palm.                                                             

33.       (a) Define the term pollution as used in Geography.                                                            

            (b) Dither their air pollution name three forms of pollution.                                               

(c) State physical conditions required for the growing of tea in Kenya.                              

            (d) Explain four problems experienced in small scale to production in Kenya.                             

34.       (a) Name two exotic beef cattle breeds in Kenya.                                                               

            (b) State three steps taken by the government to improve beef farming in Kenya.           

            (c) State three problems facing beef farming in Kenya.                                                      

            (d) (i) Explain three physical conditions that favour beef farming in Argentina.               

                 (ii) Explain two ways in which beef farming contribute to the economy of Argentina



1 .        a i) Land reclamation is a process by which unproductive land is converted to productive

land and  used for crop or animal farming. Rehabilitation is the restoration of land that has been  destroyed through human activities to its farmer usefulness/productivity   

            ii)   – Bush fallowing                                                                                                           

  • Mulching
  • Planting trees
  • Filling the pits/gulleys
  • Planting cover crops

            b i)   – To occupy detainee labour from Mwea detainee Camp                                   

  • To utilize the black cotton soils in growing rice
  • To increase agricultural production
  • To settle and create employment for former detainees

        ii)  – Diseases e.g. Bilharzia and malaria caused by water snails and mosquitoes, weaken

                and even  kill the farmers hence affecting productivity                                                      

  • Stagnant water is the breeding grounds for water snails and mosquitoes
  • Fluctuation of world prices due to competition  affects agricultural production
  • Poor payments for farmers produce that kill their morale
  • Monoculture practice has led to soil exhaustion resulting to use of fertilizer that increases cost of production
  • Mismanagement of irrigation bodies leading to losses of farmers killing their morale

 2.        a)   – Construction of productive dykes/walls to enclose area to be reclaimed                    

  • Construction of ring canals to carry water from the reclaimed area into the sea
  • Installation of pumping stations to pump water from the enclosed area
  • Water is pumped out of the area enclosed by the dyke
  • Reeds are sown to get excess water and prevent growth of weeds
  • Drainage ditches were cut in the land and drainage pipes laid
  • More pumping stations were put up in order  to drain excess water
  • Soil treated with chemical to lower salinity
  • Drained land was flushed with fresh water to remove salts from the soil
  • Pumping out of the water and crops planted or grown

 b)   – Improves distribution of fresh  water for domestic use                                      

  • Control of floods to the south west
  • Controlled seas invasion inland
  • Improved accessibility through development of roads and railways
  • Improved tourism in the area

3.         a i)   – Trans Nzoia                                                                                                             

  • Nakuru
  • Uasin Gishu

    ii)   – Land is ploughed manually/mechanically                                                                     

  • Sowing of seeds are done at the onset of rains
  • Two seeds are sown in holes of 2-5cm in rows of 1m apart
  • Application of fertilizers or manure is done during planting
  • Weeding and thinning is done to remove weak seedlings
  • Top dressing /nitrogenous fertilizers is applied after weeding when the crop is 30-45cm high
  • The crop is ready for harvesting in 4-8months depending on variety of seeds and altitude
  • Harvesting is done manually

b)   –  Maize is  a staple food                                                                                                         

  • Maize stalk serve as cattle feed
  • Maize is a raw material for industries
  • Stalks, leaves and cobs are important source of organic manure
  • Maize cobs and stalks are used as fuel in varied areas
  • Provide employment /income
  • Saving foreign exchange

4.         – Unfavourable weather conditions/ prolonged drought lead to destruction of crops hence          

              low yields/income                                                                                                            

  • Pests and diseases e.g. stalk rot, corn ear worm, silk worm, birds e.t.c. which attack crop reducing yields
  • Poor/low prices
  • High cost of farm inputs reduce farmers profits
  • Poor marketing strategy leading to low prices
  • Monoculture leading to soil exhaustion
  • Poor storage facilities

5. a)   – Friesian                                                                                                                               

  • Jersey
  • Guernsey
  • Alderney
  • Ayrshire
  • Sahiwal

b)   – Low temperatures ideal for exotic breeds                                                             

  • Fertile soils, which support quality pasture
  • Reliable and constant water supply for the animals
  • A high population, which provides ready market for dairy produce
  • Has humid conditions suitable for the growth of pastures

6. a)   – French beans                                                                                                                                

  • Cabbages/kales
  • Celery
  • Spinach
  • Pawpaw
  • Mangoes
  • Avocadoes
  • Passion fruits
  • Carnations
  • Gladioli
  • Roses
  • orchids

b)  –  Netherlands has a higher urban population than Kenya.                                         

  • There is high demand for both local and foreign horticultural products in Netherlands than Kenya
  • Farmers in Netherlands have more access to the capital needed for horticultural farming than in Kenya.
  • There is more advanced and appropriate technology in Netherlands which has enhanced horticultural farming than in Kenya.
  • Netherlands unlike Kenya has a highly skilled labour for production and handling of agricultural products.
  • There is more advanced horticultural farming related to research in the Netherlands than in Kenya.
  • Netherlands unlike Kenya has well organized marketing procedures/co-operatives/auction markets which are conducive for horticultural farming

7.         a)        – Vegetables/tomatoes/onions/carrots                                                                

– Fruits/oranges/ pineapples/ plums/ mangoes/ flowers/roses

b) – Horticultural crops are highly perishable this necessitating faster means of transport

– Same are light in weight which makes it easy /suitable for air export

– There is high demand for produce thus this need to supply urgently

– High market prices are able to pay compensate for the foreign charges

8.         a)(i)  It’s a traditional way of keeping large number of animals by nomad communities

                     who move from  place to place in search for pasture and water.                                

        ii)  –  Frequent livestock raid by neighboring communities or amongst themselves               

  • Animals are grazed communally

–      They use natural pasture for grazing in the livestock

  • It is practiced in  area with low and unreliable rainfall
  • Their movement is determined by availability of water and pasture
  • Different types of animals are kept
  • Animals are kept for pride

9.         a i) – Jersey                                                                                                                        

       – Guernsey                                                                                    

               – Aishire   

           ii)  – Ghee                                                                                                                            

– Cheese

– Butter

            b i) – Cool climate/ moderate temperatures which are suitable for survival of exotic breeds 

 – High rainfall that favours growth of pasture and fodder

– Deep volcanic soils which favour pasture and fodder growth

b ii)  – Attack by diseases such as East Coast Fever and pests e.g. ticks may cause

   death of the  animal hence total loss to the farmer                                                                           

  • Poor roads delay delivery of milk to collecting centers hence losses due to milk getting spoilt
  • High cost of farm inputs discourages dairy farmers
  • Mismanagement of the framers co-operatives discourages farmers due to delayed/ low or non- payment
  • Drought reduces fodder and water for the livestock causing death or low production
  • hence losses to the farmer

. c i)                                                                                                                                       

1. Done on small scaleDone on large scale
2. Done in Kenya highlands mainlyDone in the whole country
3. Zero grazing and out door grazing on pastureOnly zero grazing on fodder

c ii)      – New K.C.C                                                                                                            

– Brook side  

10.       a)   – Jersey                                                                                                                         

  • Ayrshire
  • Guernsey
  • Cross breed

b)  – Disease such as rindpest may lead to death of animal                                                   

  • Inadequate pasture during the dry season..
  • Failure to collect milk due to glut in production.
  • Delayed payments which discourage the  farmers.
  • Poor roads which are inaccessible during rainy season.

11.      a)    – Gently sloping land                                                                                                 

  • Deep, well drained volcanic soils
  • Moderate rainfall/ 500mm – 1270mm p.a
  • Warm conditions/ temperatures of 15C – 20C
  • Warm/ dry/ sunny spell for ripening and harvesting

 b)      – Prolonged drought which lower yields                                                             

  • Attack by pests (such as dusty brown beetle, quela birds, aphids, cereal weevils and diseases e.g. stem rust, brown leaf rust, glumme blotch
  • Exploitation by middle men
  • High costs of transport due to poor roads
  • Shortage of storage facilities

12. a i)   –    Rift Valley                                                                                                                   

  • Central
  • Eastern.

         ii)  –    Manitoba                                                                                                                                 

  • Alberta
  • Sasketchewan

      b)     –   500-12700mm RF/moderate rainfall.                                                                                  

  • Dry sunny spell for ripening/harvesting
  • At least 3 months to temp 150C – 200c for maturation or growing of wheat.
  • Volcanic soils to sustain production.
  • Gentle /fairly level/undulating land enables mechanization to take place.
  • Deep /fertile/well drained soils for production of wheat.

      c)     –      Farmers in Canada are more mechanized  while those  of Kenya are less mechanized.     

  • Canada has more capital than Kenya which experiences financial problems.
  • Farmers in Canada are more skilled/have a long history of wheat production than in Kenya which is still developing.
  • There is advanced research in Canada providing yielding seeds/better farm inputs/control of pets  & diseases/overcome limitation of whether than in Kenya where research is poorly done.
  • Farmers  in Canada has more extensive tracts  of land which are suitable for wheat growing than those in Kenya which are small  in acreage

    d)     – Canada exports wheat hence earns foreign exchange. Which is invested in other

                 sectors of the    economy.                                                                                                      

  • Wheat farming is a source of employment any Canadians who earn income raising their living standards.
  • Industrialization as many industries that deal in wheat products have been established. Leading to economic diversification.
  • The wheat farmers earn income through the sale of wheat raising their standards of

       living. Canada is self sufficient in food as wheat is the main cereal food consumed

13.       a)     –     Narok                                                                                                                   

  • Uasin Gishu
  • Nakuru
  • Parts of Baringo
  • Trans mara
  • Nyandarua
  • Trans Nzoia
  • Keiyo
  • Laikipia

            b)     – Gentle slope to allow mechanization                                                                               

  • Altitude between 1500-2900m to reduce cases of diseases outbreak
  • Moderate rainfall between 500mm to 1,270mm to supply moisture for growth
  • Warm temperature between 150oC to 20oC  to allow production
  • Warm dry sunny spell which enhances ripening of wheat and harvesting

             c i)   –      Wheat is ground into tiny particles. This is done in flour mills                               

  • Tiny particles are sifted out as four
  • The yellow flour is bleached
  • Bleaching gives white colour to wheat flour

             c ii)  – Wheat is sold on local markets                                                                             

            –   Procedures sell wheat or millers e.g. Unga limited

    d i)   –    Inadequate capital limiting expansion of farms and level of mechanization                 

  • Pests like dirty brown beetle, aphids, quelea birds damage wheat causing low yield
  • Diseases like stem rust, leaf rust, glume blotch lead to low crop yields
  • Heavy storm/rainfall cause flattening of wheat causing rotting of wheat
  • Price fluctuation lowering productivity /profit
  • Inadequate storage facilities causing wastage

 (ii) Canada has more extensive tracks of land suitable for wheat growing while in Kenya farms  are   relatively small.

  • Canada has a higher level of mechanization while in Kenya the level is relatively low/machines are slowed
  • Farmers in Canada are more experienced due to longer history of wheat production while in Kenya the level of advancement of techniques is low.
  • Advanced scientific research in Canada enables the production of higher yielding seeds than in Kenya where the level of research is low.
  • Wheat farmers in Canada specialize in wheat production while in Kenya they practice mixed farming                      (any 2×1=2mks)

14.       a)     –  High temperature between 20oC to 27oC.                                                                    

  • Dry sunny conditions
  • High rainfall ranging 1200-1500mm
  • Deep fertile soils
  • Well drained soils
  • Gentle sloping areas to allow mechanization

. b)     –      Land use conflict/competition from cash crops                                                      

  • High cost of inputs which was limited mechanization
  • Impassible /muddy roads during rainy season
  • High rise of cattle diseases like East Coast fever
  • abrupt and extensive drought lowers production
  • Mismanagement of co-operatives resulting in delayed payments killing the moral of farmers

15.       a i)      -Nigeria                                                                                                                     

                       – Coted’ivoire


ii) – heavy  rainfall-1270mm-1500mm per year                                                              

                -high temperature-between 21ºc and 26ºc throughout  the year

              -high relative humidity –over 75%throughout  the year

               -deep fertile and  well drained  soils

               -Protection from  sunshine  and wind  by banana plants  and other  shady trees

               -low altitude below 700m above  sea level 

          b)-The pods are harvested using long sharp knives, collected and pulled at a central place

              -The pods are then split open with a sharp knife and beans are scooped out by band

            -The beans are put in heaps on mats, covered with banana leaves and are allowed to

              ferment for 5  to  be days  during which the juicy pulps drain away

            -The fermented beans are washed and cleaned spread on tables covered with   mat to

           dry  in the  hot sun

             -The beans are turned frequently as they dry and slowly they turn brown

             -The  dry beans are put in sacks   ad sent to the  buying centers. There the dry beans

          are weighted   and graded ready  for export.

c)  –  Pest  like capsid bug mealy bug destroy the  crop                                                                 

– The swollen shoot disease attacked the tree shoots and the black pod disease affects                 

  the pods reducing the yields

– The strong harmattan winds break the branches and cause premature ripening of the pods

– Fluctuation of prices in the world market discourage the farmers

– Poor transportation facilities make it difficult for the former to  deliver the  crop in  time

– Labour  is sometimes  in short supply, leading to delay in  harvesting

16.       (a) i) horticulture is  the cultivation  of vegetables, fruits   and flowers  for commercial purpose

             ii)-  there  is higher  local demand  for  horticultural  crops  in the Netherlands  than Kenya

– The  Netherlands  has  along  history  of  horticultural  crop  production and hence  has

   established  foreign  markets than Kenya

– Netherlands formers are well  organized making  it easy to access loans whereas few

 Kenyans  access  loans

– Netherlands has advanced  technology while Kenya has low –level  advancement  of


– Netherlands has well development transport  network  while in Kenya   the transport

 network   is  poor

– Netherlands has highly skilled labour  for production and handling of horticulture whereas — – Kenya has a  shortage of skilled  labour in this field

– In  Netherlands there  is advanced research  in the industry while  in Kenya research is                 

  less  advanced

     – Netherlands is  centrally situated  in Europe which gives  the country an advantages  of 

        Europe  market

         iii) –  the pants  do not suffer the  effects  of excessive rainfall, hailstone  and strong  winds

– The plants will not be affected by drought because they are constantly  watered

– The spread of pests and diseases is easily controlled

– it is easier  to  control the  amount  of moisture that the flower require

– uniform and  constant climatic conditions  for  the  plants are created

– the flower are  grown throughout  the year

17.      – Temperature ranges from 15degrees c to 20 degrees c(moderate temperature)            

           – Warm dry sunny spell for ripening

           – Rainfall between 305mm and 1015mm

           – Volcanic, well drained soils

           – Gently sloping/fairly level land

18.       a) -­ High rainfall which is well distributed throughout the year ensure abundant supply of

                  water  for  the animals and pasture.                                                                                    

– Fertile volcanic soil ensure high quality nutritious cover of grass.

– Cool condition/temperature averaging 180c which is ideal for the survival of exotic

   breeds/slow breeding of pests & disease.       

  b i) Dairy farming in Kenya is mainly pasture dependant while in Denmark it is mostly dependant   on  fodder                                    

    ii) In Kenya, most dairy products are consumed locally while dairy products in Denmark are

           mostly exported to foreign markets                                                                                             

19.      a) – Aberdeen Angus.                                                                                                         

– Charolais

– Shorthorn

– Santa gertridis

– Hereford

– Red Angus

– Galloway                

             b)    -Extensive rolling grassland which allows the cattle to graze freely.                            

            – Fertile soils of the Andes Mountain which give rise to healthy natural grass for feeding          

              the  animals.

          –  Moderate temperatures of about 240c during summer and 100c during winter which

            ensures continuous growth of grass for feeding the animals.

          – Moderate rainfall of about 1000mm which ensures growth of nutritious natural grass


        – Adequate water for the animals.   

20.      a i) )    X- Alberta                                                                                                                 

                       Y -Saskatchewan

                       Z-  Manitoba

ii) – Warm summers with average temperatures of about 1.50c                                              

    – Sunny late summers for rip3ening of wheat.

    – Extensive undulating and uninhabited low lands.

    – Rich dark – brown chernozen soils rich in potassium and phosphates/less acid soils.

b)     – Central province.                                                                                                     

– Rift valley province.

– Eastern province. 

21.      a) Horticulture is the growing of fruits, flowers and vegetables for export market while

              market gardening is the growing of fruits and vegetables for local market (nearest

              urban   centre)     

b) – Hot and wet climate for growth of tropical crops and cool and wet conditions for

                  temperature crops                                                                                                                   

   – Fertile soils of volcanic origin

   – High demand for the products both locally and internationally

   – Investment by large companies providing the capital needed for horticulture


  – Availability of technical and financial assistance from friendly countries

  – Well organized marketing system

22.      a)-  It refers to the extensive grazing on natural pasture involving constant or seasonal   

                 migration  of people and their livestock        

b)     –  Pastoralists move from place to place in search of water and pasture                     

– Land is grazed communally, though animals may be owned by individuals

  – A large number of animals is kept resulting in overgrazing and serious incidents of soil    erosion

– There is controlled cross- breeding of animal within each herd

– The animals are generally of poor quality due to diseases and low quality feeds

– Animals are considered as a source of pride and not income

– Cattle are kept as a sign of wealth, paying pride price and slaughter during cultural festival

– Different animals are kept i.e. cattle, sheep. Donkey e.t.c.

23.      a) – Improved veterinary services                                                                                     

           – Increase milk prices

                       – Good performance of co-operatives

                       – Government effort through the ministry of livestock development

b) – Breeds kept are similar                                                                                                     

   – Use of co-operatives

   – Artificial insemination is used

   – Open and zero grazing is done

       c)             – Creation of employment                                                                                                  

– Earns Kenya foreign exchange

– Self- sufficiency in milk production

 24.     a i) Total tones         = 100800                                                                              

1 5cm rep 100,800 tonnes.

Flowers : 42800X 15 = 6.324 cm = 6.3 cm


Oranges: 20600X15 = 3.363cm = 3.4cm


Tomatoes: 20300X 15 = 3.02 cm = 3.0 cm


Carrots: 15400 X 15 = 2.29 = 2.3 cm




             a) ii)       42500 – 15400 = 2 7,100 tonnes                                                                                

     iii) 15400X 100   


=15.828 %/15.3%                                                                                                    

 b i)   – They are easy to draw.                                                                                          

– They are easy to read/interpret

– They give clear visual impression of individual components.

– They allow easy companion.

– They can be used to represent a wide range of data.

  ii)  – Moderate rainfall of 800 – 1200 mm                                                                                  

– Suitable for horticultural farming.

– Cool and wet temperate crops.

– Hot and wet climate favours the growth of tropical crops.

c  – Pests and diseases such as tomato blight attack the tomatoes and  lowers the yields

      leading to  low income for the farmers.                                                                                

– Most roads are impassable during the rainy season leads to delayed delivery of the

   horticultural crops to the collecting centre lowering the quality subsequently the profit to

   the   farmers.

– High costs of farm inputs reduces the farmer profit margins.

– Prolonged drought/hail storms in some areas destroys the crops leading to heavy


– Stiff competition from Netherlands and Israel which reduces the international  market.

– Inadequate refrigeration facilities leads to deterioration of the quality of horticultural

   products and subsequently the profit to the farmers is lowered.

25.       a) – Freshian                 – Aryshire

             – Jersey           – Guernsey

       b) – Creation of employment                                                                                                 

        – Establishment of other related industries

        – Milk is a source of protein hence healthy population

       – A source of income to farmers

      – Government collects taxes from sales of dairy products

      – Cow dung is used manure hence increased productivity

      – Dairy products are exported hence earning foreign exchange

26.        a) – Tea                                                                                                                              

           – Coffee

           – Horticultural products

      . b) – Kenya exports mainly agricultural commodities that fetch less revenue                          

        – Price fluctuations in the world marked which make it difficult to plan ahead

       – Competition from cheaper commodities that are imported into the country

       – Inadequate transport and communication facilities

      – Inadequate capital to expand trading activities

      – Fees paid in form f trading license discourage traders

     – Smuggling of goods (cheaper) from neighboring countries

    – Poverty among the people which reduces their purchasing power  

27.      (a)    – Food supply                                                                                                             

   – Industrial raw materials

– Draught animals/ beasts of burden

– Storage of wealth

            – Medium of exchange     

 b)      – Sinking boreholes/ harvesting rain water                                                                      

  • Cross breeding
  • Discourage overstocking
  • Extension services
  • Credit availability
  • Cattle dips
  • Diversification e.g. bee keeping

            –     Sensitization on quality/ selling e.t.c.

28.       a) –   Operation costs                                                                                                        

  • Market expenses
  • Price fluctuations
  • Government policy

b i)   –     Is a beverage                                                                                                       

  • Is an industrial raw material for making cocoa butter, chocolates, confectionaries cosmetics, soap and drugs.
  • Cocoa husks are  used as fertilizer.
  • Cocoa shell  is used as mulch.
  • Cocoa husks may used as fuel.

          ii)  –  Pests such as the capsid destroy the cocoa tree.                                                             

  • Diseases such as swollen shoot and black pod destroy  the crop.
  • Fluctuation of cocoa prices.
  • Short  labour supply.
  • Flooded feeder roads delay  collection of the crop.
  • Bush fires destroy the crop.
  • Strong winds e.g the harmattan cause a drying effect.
  • Low cocoa prices

29.      a) Horticulture is the growing of fruits, vegetables and flowers for the export market

   while market  gardening is the intensive cultivation of fruits and vegetable mainly for

    urban markets     

 b)     -Roses                                                                                                            

  • Orchids
  • Carnations
  • Gladio

c)     – Inadequate capital to buy the necessary farm input                                                     

  • Low production of milk from indigenous breeds
  • Low managerial ability of the farmers
  • Poor pasture leading to low quality breeds
  • Inadequate labor supply
  • Competition from imported milk and milk product by unscrupulous businessmen
  • Diseases and pests
  • Delayed payment to the milk producers
  • Poor transport network
  • Prolonged drought

30.       a) – Loss in livestock and crops production.                                                                 

            – Low agricultural production.

            – Low agricultural economic growth.

            – Reduced production agricultural land

            – Overcrowding in areas receiving adequate rainfall leading to land degradation.

     b)   – Honey from bees is a major source of food as well as medicine.                                                  

            – It is a major source of income in arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya.

            – It provide alternative and effective use of marginal areas where crops may do well.

            – Bee wax is used in making candle.

            – Bees are not expensive to maintain     

31.       a)       – Traditional diet.                                                                                                                

                        – Land ownership/Inheritance.

                        – Religion.

                        – Gender roles

                        – Foreign influence

b)  – Gentle sloping terrain.                                                                                              

               – Extensive pieces of land with low production.

               – Adequate capital to set up large farms.

               – Availability of skilled labour.    

32.      a) – High temperature throughout the year (21 – 270)                                       

            – Plenty of sunshine during ripening period.

            – Heavy rainfall well distributed through out the year.

 b)       – Cooking fat.                                                                                                                        

            – Soap/both for washing and toilet soap.

            – Cosmetics.

33.       a) – Pollution is the contamination of the environment with substances which are

                   harmful or  poisonous to human, plants and animal life.                                               

b)             – Land /Soil/Ground pollution.                                                                                    

  • Water pollution
    • Noise pollution.

c)         – Temperature ranging between 150c – 300c                                                                

            – Mean annual rainfall which should be between 400 – 1750 mm.

            – Soil should be deep, well drained but with good water – retaining capacity.

            – Altitude of between 1500 – 2200m.

            – Windbreaks essential for protection of tea bushes against damaging wind.

            – Shade.        

 d)             – Pests and diseases.                                                                                      

                – Tea bushes are commonly attacked by different pests and disease.

                –  Such pests  include black tea thrips, red spider mites, red crecise mite and weevils.

                – Diseases include root rot.

34.      a) – Aberdeen Angus                                                                                                        

            – Hereford .

            – Short horn

– Sahiwal      

           b) – Establishing priority orders by creating awareness among leaders.                             

            – Identifying methods of approach that include retorted inclusives and dept. of


            – Educating farmers on strategies to improve their systems of livestock farming.

            – Investigating the prevailing market situations and make appropriate recommendations.

            – Creating Ranching schemes in arid and semi arid (ASACS) areas to improve livestock


            – Identifying possible financial institutions to farmers such as AFC and banks and advise

              farmers accordingly.

            – Providing dipping facilities to improve the health of animals.

            – Building dams to improve water in Reserves for the animals.

            – Encouraging farmers to adopt modern methods of breeding beef cattle to improve on


            – Introducing pedigree British cattle in some suitable districts or cross breeding with

               indigenous  breeds to improve on the quality of the animals

           c– Unreliable and inadequate rainfall leading to inadequate pastures.                               

            – High temp. in most parts which makes it difficult to raise cattle of good quality.

            – Pastral tribes come for quantity rather than quality, land/herds of poor animals steadily

             ruin    pasture land.

– Hard ancient rock that underlie Kenya produce poor soils prone to erosion. Natural

  grass is poor and not good for quality animals.

– Climate conditions of Kenya encourage spread of nagana

d i)    – Well distributed rainfall throughout the year from growth of good pasture.         

  • Subtropical temp. with summer temp. raising above 240c lower winter temp. of about 100 c favours growth  of grass.
  • Gently sloppy Lorain provide good natural grazing landscape with good pasture.
  • Fertile soils washed from foot/hills of Audes losses that are fertile and encourage growth   of pastures.

            d ii)  – Provide employment in various section e.g. stockmen ranches.                               

  • Improved feeder road to enable farmers transport cattle to the urban centres.
  • Earns foreign exchange used in other section of economy (Your exports).
  • By-products like hides used as raw materials to industries thus encouraging industrial


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