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1.         (a) Name two oil producing countries in the midddle East                                    

            (b) Give three contributions of oil to the economies of Middle East countries                       

2.         (a) What is a multi-purpose project?                                                                                 

            (b) Name two multi-purpose projects in Africa                                                                 

3.         (a) (i) Name five renewable sources of energy                                                                      

     (ii) State three disadvantages and three advantages of wind as source of energy           

            (b) (i) What is geothermal power?                                                                                         

                (ii) Name two areas in Kenya which have a potential for producing geothermal power  

          (d) Explain three measures taken by the Kenyan government to conserve energy                

4.         a) i) What is energy crisis                                                                                         

               ii) State four causes of energy crisis                                                                                 

b) i) Name three non- renewable sources of energy                                                             

    ii) Apart from seven forks Dam project name two other hydro electric plants in Kenya

   iii) Explain four factors that favoured the establishment of seven forks dam project      

        c)  State two effects of energy use on environment                                                                  

5.         (a) Give three advantages of suing solar energy                                                                                 (b) Identify the hydro-power stations marked P, Q and R in the diagram   

             (c)Explain any five ways in which energy contributes to the growth of the economy        

            (d) (i) Explain any three problems associated with energy crisis                                         

                (ii) Suggest any three ways to minimize energy wastage                                                

6.         (a) Define the term renewable sources of energy.                                                                 

           (b) (i) Explain four physical factors influencing the generation of hydro-electric power.    

               (ii) Outline three limitations in the production of geothermal power in Kenya.               

            (c) (i) Explain any four negative effects of the energy crisis in the world.                          

                 (ii) State four possible methods that the government of Kenya can use to conserve energy.     

7.        (a) Explain the impact of the oil crisis to Kenya                                                                    

           (b) What measures has the Kenyan government carried out to conserve energy                   

8.         a) What is energy crisis?                                                                                                        

            b) State three environmental impact of energy crisis in Kenya                                           

9.         (a) Name two sources of thermal electricity                                                                         

            (b) Explain four benefits Kenya would get by striking oil in Isiolo                                     

            (c) Explain three measures taken by the Kenya  government to manage and conserve energy       

            (d) Form four students of Nyabisawa Girls carried out a field study at Olkaria Geothermal

                 pour stations

10.       (i) State three preparation they made prior to the study                                                       

             (ii) State three methods of data collection they could have used                                        

            (iii) State three uses of Geothermal energy they learnt                                                        

11.       (a) (i) Name two non-renewable sources of energy                                                              

                 (ii) Explain four physical factors that influence the location of hydroelectric power station

(b) (i) What is energy crisis?                                                                                                  

                 (ii) State three causes of energy crisis                                                                              

                 (iii) Explain two effects of energy crisis                                                                           

12.       (a) List two renewable fossil fuels                                                                                        

            (b) Identify any three functions of hydro power reservoir other than power generation     

            (c) State three reasons why Kenya spent so little on importing maize during the year 2002

            (d) (i) Name two provinces in Kenya where maize is grown on large scale                         

               (ii) State any two uses of maize                                                                                          

13.       (a) Name the dams marked E, F and G                                                                                 

            (b) Differentiate between renewable and non-renewable sources of energy.                       

            (c)Explain three factors that influenced the location of Owen falls dam in Uganda           

            (d) Explain four problems that hinder development of Hydro-electric power projects in Africa


. ENERGY          

1.         a) –  Saudi Arabia Ö

  • IraqÖ
  • IronÖ
  • KuwaitÖ
  • United Arab Emirates/ Abu Dhabi/ Bahrain/ Bahrain IslandÖ
  • Qatar Ö

b)        – Earning foreign exchangeÖ                                                                              

  • Improvement of hospitals and schoolsÖ
  • Development of manufacturing industries e.g. petrol chemicalsÖ
  • Creates employmentÖ
  • Development of towns and citiesÖ
  • Incomes/ profits have made the countries have high per capita incomeÖ
  • Revenues and royalties earned from oil have enabled those countries to invest abroad thus increasing their wealth Ö

2.         a) – A multi purpose project is a project that serves more than one purpose e.g. HEP,                              

                  irrigation, fishing Ö                                                                                                   

         b) – Seven forks projectÖ                                                                                        

  • Kariba projectÖ
  • Aswam high dam projectÖ
  • Akosombo dam projectÖ
  • Cobra Basa projectÖ     

3.         a i) The sun, wind, water, wood, waves and tides, geothermal steam, biomas and animal          

              ii)      – It is always available as long as it is blowing                                                 

  • It is cheap source as we do not pay for it
  • It is clean source which does not pollute environment
  • It can be produced on small scale for local consumers
  • The land occupied by windmills can also be simultaneously used for cultivation of crops

         b) i) Geothermal power is lelectricity which is generated form the earth’s internal heat

                 that reaches  the surface though geysers and hot springs                                               

               ii)    – It is relatively cheap to produce                                                                                     

– Generation of electricity if continuous because steam is continuously being produced


– The sot of operating of geothermal plant is relatively low

– Geothermal steam is renewable source

– It is a clean source of energy which does not pollute he environment

– it helps reduce over-dependence on exhaustible sources such as fossil fuels

      .c)             – Government bureaucracy and political interference                                                  

– Inadequate capital for investment

– Lack of skilled labour

– Inadequate technology

    d)  – People are being encouraged to use energy-saving devices such as the energy-saving


– the government is encouraging the use of alternative sources of energy such as wind, the sun   and biomass.

– there is development of wood fuel programe through a forestation ad reforestation involving     planting of quick-growing trees.

– The government uses consumer prices to discourage unnecessary uses of oil as fuel

– People are being encouraged to switch off electrify gadgets when they are not being used

– People are also encouraged to have proper maintenance of motor vehicles to reduce the    amount of fuel consumed

4.         a i) – Refers to the chain of negative reactions emanative from a cute shortage of

                    essential energy

         ii)      – Over reliance on one source of energy (oil)                                                                    

  • High increase in oil prices by oil producing countries
  • Hoarding of oil to create artificial shortage leading to skyrocketing of prices
  • Depletion of fossil fuels
  • War which hinder mining and supply of oil to the world market          

b i) – Coal                                                                                                                            

      – Uranium

                 – Petroleum         

         ii)   – Turkwel power project                                                                                                

 – Sondu Miriri project                            

           iii)    – Steep gradient that allowed fast flow of water (water falls) to turn tubing to produce


  • Permanent source of water from RTana which provided plenty and regular supply of water to turn turbines and provide electricity throughout the year
  • Sparse population in the region which reduced the cost of resettlement
  • Impermeable soils in the region which reduce water loss from the reservoir through see page
  • Presence of hard basement rock which provided firm foundation for construction of


5.         a)  –  Inexhaustible                                                                                                            

  • Versatile- many uses
  • Reduces dependence on oil
  • Cheap/ free access everywhere
  • Minimum maintenance cost
  • Environment friendly
  • Can be stored

. b)                  P- Masinga                                                                                                               

            Q – Kamburu

            R – R. Kindaruma

. c)    – Industrial growth – creation of employment/ goods                                                      

– Transport – employment/ enables trade

– Agriculture e.g. tractors e.t.c. – food production

– Water supply – industrial use

            – Health e.g. X- rays – healthy work force         

. d i)           – Reduced industrial production – shortages/ lose of employment                                

– Increased prices/ fares – limits purchase/ travel

– Domestic problems e.g. darkness/ cooking e.t.c. reduced standards of living

. ii) – Put off gadgets not in use                                                                                                    

            – Keep gadgets in good working condition

– Use of public transport

– Increase capacity of public vehicles

– Better roads – avoid traffic jams e.t.c.

– Use fewer lighting bulbs

– Minimise outdoor advertising i.e. bill boards

– Energy saving jikos/ stoves

– Use low capacity cars      

6 .        a) – Renewable sources of energy are those sources that are continually being replaced

                  or  regenerated.                                                                                                                      

            –  They are considered inexhaustible

            b i)  – Presence of steep gradient of where there is a waterfall through out the year to

                     make the  operations economical                                                                                    

  • Hard basement rock to provide a firm foundation for the construction of a dam and accommodate weight of the reservoir
  • Presence of a deep valley-where there is a deep valley or river gorge, it provides space for the reservoir therefore saves on the costs of constructing a dam.
  • Presence of non-porous rocks to prevent seepage of water from the reservoir

ii)  –    Adequate capital to develop more plants in Olkaria and other potential areas         

  • Low level of technology in exploitation of geothermal
  • Economical imbalance between the cost of setting up a station and the subsequent power outlay hence need for more stations.
  • Potential areas are scattered and located in remote sparsely populated areas which are not potential markets for electricity produced
  • High transmission costs of the potential markets

c i) – It leads to an increase in prices of imports and other locally manufactured goods.   

  • Third world countries spend huge sums of money on importation of crude oil
  • Affects balance of trade since earnings from exports will be lower than imports.
  • Results into inflation since the government passes the costs to consumers
  • Oil crisis lowers GDP of third world countries since there will be more expenditure than investments
  • It causes recession making an economy unable to create more jobs
  • Causes a rise in living standards of people
  • Increase production costs in other industries          

      c .ii)  –   Reducing the consumption rate of energy by encouraging people to put off

                      electricity when   not in use                                              

  • Rationing of power by the distributing company
  • Encouraging the use of public vehicles, proper maintenance of vehicles to cut down on the amount of petroleum used/consumed
  • Encouraging the use of alternative sources of energy like biogas and solar energy that can be renewed hence saving on non-renewable energy sources.
  • Ensuring the development of energy saving devices e.g. jikos which use wood/charcoal
  • Development of industrial machines which can use coal that is cheaper as an alternative form of energy
  • Reduction of taxes on gas and solar panels to cut down on the use of wood fuel

7.      (a)  – Leads to increase in prices of imports which  result in material shortage lowering of

                the gross  domestic products (GDP) and creates a recession hence economy cannot 

                  be able to create   more jobs                                                                                                

           – Leads to inflation   i.e. the rise of  prices of various  commodities leading to reduced

               consumption of goods and services hence drop in profits

          – Increase in price of other forms of energy due to higher transport and production cost

         – Decline in  agricultural production due to decrease in  and under maize and wheat and

         reduced tourist activities due to the hike in oil prices that result in higher transport costs.

         air fares rise  steeping making it expensive for tourists  to travel

        – Depletion of foreign exchange reserves due to the increase in the oil import bill, the

          country  spends a lot of its revenue on purchase of unrefined oil

          – Environmental degradation  due to search for alternative  sources of energy hence

               demand for harcoal and wood fuel causing deforestation and soil erosion         

      b) – To conserve energy means the efficient utilization of energy to avoid wastage                

         – Encouraging he use of solar for heating and lighting

         – Encouraging Kenyans to put off electricity gadgets when they are not being used

         – Proper maintenance of motor vehicles

         – Encouraging the use of public transport instead of personal cars

         – Encourage the use of energy saving jikos /stores to reduce wood fuel used

8.         a) Is usually portrayed as a question of price and supply uncertainties and the rapid

               depletion  of fossil fuels                                                                                                            

b) – Destruction of forest as alternatives source of energy                                                      

    – Promote erosion due to deforestation

   – Destabilize ecological balance

   – Facilitate desertification due to deforestation

9.         a)         – Oils.                                                                                                                        

                        – Natural gas.

                        – Coal.           

 b) – Kenya would save foreign exchange it used to spend on oil inputs and channel the

       funds to  projects.                                                                                                        

– More industries would be established because industrial fuel would be

cheaper/increase in investments. .

– More job opportunities would be created in the oil sector and other related industries

thereby  improving standards of living of Kenyans. .

– Transport costs would reduce leading to cheaper commodities in the market. .

– Kenya would earn more foreign exchange through oil exports and these earnings used

to develop other sectors of the economy. .

– Infrastructure of social amenities improved leading to better standards of living.

c) – The government is encouraging the use of alternative sources of energy such as ,    

       Geothermal  biomass, wind & sun.                                                                                      

– The government is developing modified programmes through afforestation,

  reafforestation &   planting of fast-growing trees.

– Controlling importation of vehicles with high engine capacity.

– People are encouraged to use energy saving jikos.

– A lot of emphasize is being put on protecting the existing forest by resettling people

]who have   settled on forest land.

– Encouraging the use of public transport by improving it so as to reduce the number of

  private   cars on the roads.                                                                      

10.       i)  – Conducting reconnaissance                                                                                     

– Preparing relevant tools & equipment.

– Preparing working schedule.

– Forming groups.

– Content analysis/doing more research.

ii)  – Direct observation.                                                                                                      

– Interviewing.

– Administering Questionnaire.

– Photographing/filming.    

 iii) – Lighting.                                                                                                                       

– Heating.

– Powering machines.        

11.      a i)   – Coal                                                                                                                           

– Natural gas

– Uranium

– Petroleum  products/oil 

      ii) –  a  large  and constant volume of water harvested  from large  river with large volume of

                water through out  the year                                                                                                     

– a deep narrow valley/gorge to minimize the construction  cost.

– Sparse population  in order to minimize relocation/resettlement cost

– A fall  water /water fall-water falling  from a high  point  to supply  force required  to 

rotate   the  tribunes

– A hard basement to reduce the amount of water that will seep into the ground and

provide     storing foundation  for the dam

– Adequate capital for   dam construction, transmission of power and compensation

 displaced  people

b i) Energy  crisis is  the price  and supply uncertainties that are  usually accompanied

      by the rapid  depletion  of fossil fuels                                                                       

 ii)   –  overdependence on  oil  and its  products                                                                      

– depletion  of wood  fuel

– exhaustion and deepening  of coal mines

– artificial shortages cause  when some  countries decide to conserve their  resources

– wastage and misuse of energy

– wars/disagreements within oil producing  countries

iii)  – every crisis has led to petroleum price adjustment causing a general inflation

         and  the prices  of various commodities.

– Some industries in the  economy are affected   to a points where  they lay  off  some of

  their  staff

– The price increase usually  leads  reduced  consumption of goods and services leading

  to a drop in profits

12.      a)  – Petroleum                                                                                                                    

                   – Gas    

         b)     –  Fishing                                                                                                                       

  • Irrigation
  • Industrial/ domestic use
  • Water ways
  • Tourism
  • Regulate river flow
  • Water storage                

c)     – There could have been bumper harvest of maize locally.                                            

  • There might have been sufficient food for all.
  • The country may not have experienced famine to necessitate emergency importation.

      d i)   –   Rift Valley                                                                                                                    

  • Western
  • Central
  • Coast.

    d ii)  –   Maize stalk  is used as cattle feeds.                                                                          

  • Cobs /stalk is used as fuel.
  • Grain is used as human food.
  • Industrial material – oil.

13.       a)        E – Owen falls Dam in Uganda                                                                           

                        F – Akosombo Dam in Ghana                                                                              

                        G – Kariba dam in Zambia/ Zimbabwe                                                                   

b) Renewable sources of energy are those that have the capacity to be regenerated/ reused

     e.g.  sun, wind, water while non-renewable sources of energy are those that can be    

     exhausted if  not well managed such as coal, petroleum and natural gas                      

 c)   – Availability of large volume of water from the River Nile                                   

  • Presence of a natural water fall, the Owen falls; to turn the turbines
  • Presence of a hard basement rock to support the weight of the reservoir
  • Availability of a ready market for the power from the surrounding high population

d)    – High seasonal fluctuations in the flows of the river regime especially in times of drought

  • Inadequate capital since H.E.P require high capital outlay which many African countries lack and they rely heavily on foreign aid
  • Poor maintenance of machinery at power production stations caused by inadequate capital to buy spare parts for the machines
  • Siltation of reservoirs caused by poor farming methods upstream and lack of machinery to remove the silt from the reservoirs
  • Small markets for HEP hinder production due to high poverty level of the population found in the counties
  • The bigrivers such as Niger, Nile, Volta, Zambezi and Orange have their waters reduced by
  • evaporation because they pass across dry regions
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