HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
END OF TERM 3 2022
- Name countries that use constitutional monarchy form of government. (2mks)
- Give the meaning of the term History.(1mk)
History refers to the study of man’s past events.
- Identify 2 sources of History and Government. (2mks)
- Name two periods in the metallic age period. (2mks)
- Outline one aspect of history. (1mk)
- Identify the human ancestors associated with the new stone age. (2mks)
- Homo sapiens
- Homo sapiens sapiens
- Name one species of Austropithecus. (1mk)
- Name one Paleolithic period.(1mk)
- Old stone age; also known as lower Paleolithic period
- Middle stone age; known as middle Paleolithic period
- New stone age; also called upper Paleolithic period or Neolithic period
- Name two sources of the British constitution. ( 2 marks)
- Law of precedents.
- Customs of Parliament.
- Historical documents.
- Conventions and practices.
- Define the term scramble. ( 1 mark)
It refers to the rushing for something. In the African situation, it meant the rush for and struggle by European powers to acquire various parts of Africa during the 19th century.
- Name one community that collaborated with the British outside Kenya (1mk)
- Give two ways used by the Europeans to acquire colonies in Africa. ( 2 mks)
- Military conquest
- Signing of treaties
- List two communes where assimilation was practiced in Senegal. ( 2 marks)
- St. Louis
- Name two types of democracy. ( 2 marks)
- Direct democracy
- Indirect democracy
- Name one reform introduced after the Majimaji rebellion. ( 1 mark)
- The Africans resented a system of forced labour, whereby they were required to grow cotton and build roads for their European occupiers.
- The Germans had no respect for African culture in that they misbehaved with Ngindo women.
- Christian missionaries discredited traditional belief and practices e.g. condemning sacred places as places of witchcraft. This greatly offended the Africans.
- Germans had alienated land from Africans as a way of making the railway pay for the cost of its construction.
- Africans were forced to grow cotton in the communal cotton growing scheme, where they got very little payments.
- The Ngoni were seeking revenge for the Boma Massacre of 1897 during which their soldiers were killed in large numbers.
- The role of Kinjeketile Ngwale in instilling confidence in the Africans to unite and rise up against the Germans
- State one factor that helped Samouri Toure to resist the Europeans. ( 1 mark)
- He had established military workshops with a trained cadre of artisans whom he used to repair and manufacture his own weapons. This guaranteed regular supply of weapons during the resistance.
- He himself was a courageous fighter, a greater organizer and a military tactician and he personally commanded his army on the battlefield.
- His adoption of the Scorched Earth Policy as he mobilized the entire population to retreat left the French to starve and delay their advance.
- Name the British company that administered southern Africa during the company rule. ( 1 mark)
BRITISH SOUTH AFRICAN COMPANY ( BSA Co)
SECTION B ( 45 MARKS)
Answer any three (3) questions
- a) State two inventions in agriculture during the Agrarian revolution. (3mks)
- Lord Townshend 1674-1738 recommended the use of manure to improve fertility.
- Sir John Bennet Laws 1843 set up super phosphate factory in London.
- Justus Von Lie Big 1803-1873 invented the modern fertilizer industry
- Robert Bakewell 1725-1795 cross-breeding for quality sheep.
- JethroTull 1701 invented the seed drill
- Cyrus McComic 1837 invented the reaper
- Andrew Meikles 1786 made the mechanical thresher
- Nicholas Appert, a French confectioner in 1810 developed a canning process.
- Carolus Linnaeus, a Swede discovered method of plant and animal classification.
b) Explain the impacts of the early agriculture in Mesopotamia. (12mks)
- It resulted in increased food production
- Increased food production led to increase in human population.
- Agriculture led to sedentary or settled life in the villages.
- Areas at which trade took place grew steadily into urban centers/towns grew from the villages e.g. Ur, Uruk, Kish, Nippur, Eridu and Babylon.
- Surplus agricultural products led to the development of trade.
- It also led to specialization in craft activities e.g. pottery, basketry etc.
- It influenced the development of writing and arithmetic. The need to keep farm records e.g. the amount of harvest, size of land etc led to the development of writing. This was done in wet clay tablets by use of a stylus. This form of writing is called cuneiform.
- Agriculture in Mesopotamia led to the development of the wheel. This was about 3500BC. The wheel was used on carts to transport farm produce and for making war chariots and for pottery.
- The Sumerians also developed mathematics and science especially Astronomy – the study of heavenly bodies. Mathematics was for measuring distance, area and time whereas astronomy was for predicting seasons. This enabled them to develop the calendar. They could predict eclipses accurately.
- It also led to the development of religion. Most of their gods were connected to agriculture and nature e.g.Ninurta – god of the floods and Ra, the sun god in Egypt
- More tools were invented to facilitate the development of agriculture e.g. the ox drawn plough and the seed drill.
- Agriculture also encouraged the development of centralized political systems complete with a code of law e.g. Hammurabi code.
- a) Outline five advantages of animal transport. (5mks)
- The animals can be used in inaccessible areas e.g. the Ilama is used in mountainous areas with narrow and meandering paths while the camel is adapted to the desert.
- They are cheap to maintain
- Pack animals are safe as accidents are rare since they do not speed
- They help to maintain ecological balance since they do not interfere with the environment.
- Some pack animals are capable of sensing danger e.g. Horses, dogs etc that can sniff out an enemy.
- They are flexible and can offer door to door service. They have no fixed time for departure and arrival.
- Can be used for social occasions
- Supplement diet meat, milk and blood
- Transport fairly bulky or heavy goods
b) Discuss the challenges facing industrialization in the third world countries (10mks)
- Long periods of colonization made them basically suppliers of raw materials and markets for industrial good from developed countries.
- Have poor means of transport and communication which undermines industrialization
- Lack of capital i.e. their poor economies cannot support meaningful industrialization
- Poor technology. Many are lagging behind due to lack of appropriate technology required in manufacturing of goods.
- Low literacy levels. Many people are not learned hence lack technical and scientific skills necessary for industrial take off.
- Stiff competition from industrialized nations due to their high quality and sophisticated marketing systems
- Developing countries have adopted protectionist policies which have discouraged private enterprises and foreign investment.
- Poverty which have led to a small domestic market. The local market for the industrial goods is limited.
- Political instability in third World countries. Many of them are involved either in civil or cross border conflicts which imparts negatively on their economies.
- Poor disaster management strategies. Devastation caused by natural calamities such as drought, floods affects industrialization process.
- Lack of skilled personnel. Many of the skilled people have migrated to the developed nations in search of better paying jobs.
- a) Identify three economic factors for the scramble of Africa. (3mks)
- The revolutionled to search for markets for European manufactured goods in Africa resulting in scramble for and partition.
- The need for raw materials. The machines invented processed goods faster than use of hand. The Europeans came to Africa in search of raw materials like cotton, palm oil, copper and iron ore.
- Cheap labour was also readily available in Africa after the abolition of slave trade.
- There was desire by the entrepreneurs to invest excess capital gained from accumulation of profits from industrial investment. Africa provided an avenue for investment.
- Industrial revolution led to improved transport system, which was necessary for effective colonization.
b) Explain the results of the Chimurenga war. ( 12 marks)
- The Africans lost their independence as the British established their authority over them.
- There was an enormous loss of life and property.
- The African land was alienated and they confined to reserves
- Africans in reserves were be subjected to forced labour.
- The war led to rapid spread of Christianity as the local people lost faith in their religion.
- The Ndebele indunas gained recognition as headmen.
- The Africans were exposed to severe famine, as the war hindered farming.
- The colonial office in London lost confidence in company rule due to its poor administration.
- a) State three qualifications for assimilation. (3mks)
- Learn the French language.
- Practice the French legal system.
- Apply the French civil and political system.
- Convert to Christianity and learn French mannerism including eating and dressing habits.
b) Discuss the reasons for the defeat of Samouri Toure. (12mks)
- Since his army and community were constantly on the move, they could not engage in any gainful economic activity to replenish their supplies.
- The abandoning of the rich Bure Gold reserves as Samori retreated meant he had lost an important source of revenue that was initially used to sustain the army.
- When he moved to his second empire, He was cut off from Freetown where he used to buy firearms.
- Samori failed to get any support from other African societies due to lack of unity. Ahmed Seku of Tukolor and Tieba of Sikasso chose to rather assist the French than support Samori.
- His second empire was open to attack from all sides by either the British or the French, making it difficult to defend.
- The French had superior weapons and better means to re-equip their stores. They were also determined to defeat samori to set up an overseas colonial empire.
- The use of the scorched earth policy was resented by the civilians since it left them with nothing after destruction. It thus starred up local resistance.
- Even within his own empire, there was no total unity. The non-Mandinka communities and non-Muslims in the empire who had felt mistreated during his reign supported the French.
- The refusal by the British to assist Samori dented his hopes of getting a European ally against the French.
- Samori’s retreat to Liberia was blocked and his capital besieged. He had to surrender to the French.
Answer any two (2) questions
- a) State the terms of Berlin conference (5mks)
- That all signatories must declare their sphere of influence an area under each nation’s occupation
- That once an area is declared a sphere of influence, effective occupation must be established in the area through establishment of firm colonial infrastructures to be followed by colonial administration.
- That any state, laying claim to any part of Africa must inform other interested parties in order to avoid future rivalry.
- That any power acquiring territory in Africa must undertake to stamp out slave trade in favour of legitimate trade and safeguard African interests.
- That if a European power claims a certain part of the African coast, the land in the interior next to the coast became hers.
- That the Congo River and the Niger River basins were to be left free for any interested power to navigate.
- The European powers vowed to protect and safeguard European interests in Africa irrespective of their nationality.
b) Explain the reasons why the British used direct rule in Zimbabwe. (10mks)
- The British desired to fully control the economy of Zimbabwe and maximize on profit generation through direct involvement in administration.
- The Shona and Ndebele resistance against British intrusion made the them not to trust the Matabele chiefs nor use them as British agents
- There was lack of reliable political system to be used in indirect administration of the region. The local political institutions based on the Induna system had been destroyed when the British conquered and occupied Zimbabwe.
- Existence of enough B.S.A Co personnel on the spot who were familiar with the area as well as the British system of government.
- Favourable climatic conditions and the expected rich mineral deposits attracted many settlers who later provided the necessary personnel.
- There was a strong desire by the Europeans to be able to direct their own affairs and destiny without interference from within or without/The spirit nationalism
- a) state three economic activities of the Buganda (3mks)
- She had fertile soils and enjoyed reliable rainfall that favoured agriculture. The women grew crops like bananas; men gathered fruits, wild honey and did fishing on Lake Victoria. They kept large herds of livestock. The Bahima herded Kabakas livestock.
- They acquired slaves, ivory and livestock through raids.
- They traded with their Bunyoro and Bagisu neighbours. They organized caravans for long distance trade with the Coast. They acquired firearms, glassware, enamel utensils and cotton cloth in exchange for hides and slaves.
- They practiced crafts e.g. bark-cloth making, basketry and pottery.
b) Describe the social organization of the Asante. (12 marks)
- a) State three early sources of energy. (3 mks)
b) Explain six features of the industrial revolution in Britain. (12mks)
- She had accumulated a lot of wealth from her trade with other countries and her colonies in Africa and America. She used this capital to invest in industry.
- She enjoyed a period of political unity, peace and stability that favoured industrial activities.
- Britain had a stronger military. Her navy was able to protect her merchants from foreign competition in the waters.
- She had raw materials such as cotton, cocoa, sugar, copra and palm oil from her colonies in America, Indies and Africa following agrarian revolution.
- Mineral resources such as coal which provided energy required and iron used in the manufacture of machinery existed.
- Existence of a good banking and insurance system which boosted her industrial growth. Banks e.g. Bank of England were already giving credit facilities.
- She had enough skilled human labour for her industries following displacement of people from rural areas during agrarian revolution.
- Her high population provided a domestic market for the manufactured goods.
- She had a free trade policy which promoted industrialization. There were no internal barriers which would have negatively industrialization.
- Good communication network encouraged industrialization by improving transportation of raw materials to the factories and manufactured goods to the market.
- Production of goods by the cottage industries helped industries to produce goods in large quantities.
- Acquisition of new skills in science and technology e.g. invention of the steam engine and electricity stimulated industrial growth.
- Industrialization in Britain enjoyed government support and goodwill. Government policies ensured all industrial objectives were achieved.