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MARKING SCHEME

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT FORM 3

END OF TERM 3 2022

              TIME: 2HRS

SECTION A : 25 marks

1. Identify three sources of History and Government in Kenya.                                                       (3mks)

  • Archaeology
  • Anthropology
  • Linguistic
  • Oral tradition
  • Written source
  • Geology

2. Identify twosub groups of the Kalenjin speakers.                                                                         (2mks)

  • Nandi
  • Kipsigis
  • Tugen
  • Marakwet
  • Pokot
  • Sabaot
  • Elgeyo

3. Name the winds that aided the early visitors to come to the Kenyan coast up to 1500AD.           (1mk)

  • Moonsoon winds

4. Identify one area in Africa where agriculture began ( 1mk)

  • Along Nile valley in Egypt

5. Identify two education commissions established in Kenya before independence.                                    (2mks)

  • Phelp-Stoke commission
  • Fraser commission

6. State two peaceful of resolving conflicts.                                                                                      (2mks)

  • Negotiating
  • Mediating
  • Arbitration
  • Litigation

7. Give two features of Roman roads by 300AD.                                                                              (2mks)

  • They were more durable
  • The roads were built by digging a trench
  • Were straight
  • Well drained

8. Identify one method of irrigation used in Ancient Egypt.                                                             (1mk)

  • Canal irrigation
  • Basin  irrigation
  • Shadoof  irrigation

9. Give one method used by the French to administer their colonies in Africa.                                (1mk)

  • Assimilation
  • Association

10. State two rules played by the African chiefs in British colonial administration.                         (2mks)

  •  They acted as the link between the people and the governor at local levels
  • They also maintained law and order at the location
  • They also coordinated the work of headmen

11. Identify two European powers that acquired colonies in East Africa.                                         (2mks)

  •  British
  • Germany

12. Give one reason why Homo Habilis was referred to as “able” man.                                           (1mk)

  • Because of the ability to make tools

13. Mention three features of African political associations formed in Kenya before 1939.            (3mks)

  • Non violent
  • Led by mission educated young men
  • Ethnic/tribal based
  • Had similar grievances
  • Membership was limited
  • Did not demand for political independence
  • Got material and moral support from the Asians

14. Give two functions of London.                                                                                                    (2mks)

  • Transport and communication centre
  • Commercial centre
  • Industrial centre
  • Education centre
  • Recreational centre

SECTION B: 45 MKS

15.a) Give five reasons which influence the migration of the Abagusii into Kenya during the pre-colonial period.                                                                                                                                                 (5mks)

  • Since the Abagusii were farmers, they migrated in search for fertile land
  • Abagusii migrated to escape external attacks from their neighbours
  • They migrated due to internal conflicts especially family  or clan feuds
  • Diseases and epidemics –also force people to migrate
  • Migrated to satisfy their desire for adventure
  • Migrated to escape drought and famine

   b) Discuss five effects of migration and settlement of the plain Nilotes during the pre- colonial period.                                                                                                                                                             (10mks)

  • As they migrated into Kenya, the maasai pushed and displaced the community they came across i.e as they expanded during the 18th century they subdued the Nandi in the north west.
  • They adopted some cultural practices from the southern Cushites i.e adopted the custom of age set systems, circumcision and clitoridectomy
  • They influenced communities such as the Nandi who adopted the institution of prophet or definer from the institution of the Laibon among the maasai.
  • A section of the maasai acquired the practice of farming from their agricultural neighbours from the rift valley
  • The maasai traded with their neighbouring communities such as the Akamba and the Agikuyu.
  • The Maasai also intermarried with their neighbours: the Akamba, the Agikuyu and even the Kalenjin with whom they interacted
  • The maasai also absorbed the southern  Cushites such as the Dorobo
  • The maasai influenced the fighting tactics of other groups in Kenya

16 a) Give five reasons why third world countries have lagged behind in industrialization.             (5mks)

  • Long periods of colonization
  • Poor transport and communication
  • Lack of capital
  • Low literacy level
  • Stiff competition from the industrialized nations
  • Political instability
  • Brain drainage
  • Poor leadership and corruption
  • High foreign debts

b)Explain five effects of iron working in African societies before the 19th century.                         (10mks)

  • Use of iron tools made cultivation easy/faster as they were more efficient
  • Iron tools were used to clear forest thereby enabling people to migrate/settle in new areas
  • iron weapons were used to fight other communities there by increasing warfare conflicts
  • led to rise of professional smith who were accorded high status in the society
  • demand for iron tools enhanced trade between communities
  • powerful states emerged as iron weapons were used to conquer weaker communities

17 a) Give five reasons why Lewanika collaborated with the British.                                               (5mks)

  • he needed protection from the internal enemies
  • he had been influenced by khama of Ngwato to seek British assistance
  • he wanted to protect his kingdom against external invasion e.g ngoni
  • he desired western education and civilization of his people
  • Lewanika realized the futility of resisting against the British
  • He wanted to safeguard his independence
  • He wanted to acquire material benefit

b) Discuss five factors that led to SAMOURI TOURE’s defeat by the French.                                (10mks)

  • Failure to gain British support to block French claim of Toure’s territory
  • His support and maintenance of slavery and slave trade made him unpopular with the neighbours
  • African leaders like Seku Ahmed of Tukolor and tiebba of Sikassa refused to support him against French forces
  • He became unpopular and lost local support due to his scorched earth policy
  • He failed to replenish his army as the British refused to sell him guns and gun powder as the French captured his armoury
  • All non-Muslims in the region supported the French against toures Islamic imperialism
  • Due to age he was unable to coordinate and maintain his armies discipline
  • The French used superior weapon against his army

SECTION C: 30MARKS

ANSWER ANY TWO QUESTIONS

18 a) Outline the structure of indirect rule in British colonies.                                                          (5mks)

  • The colonial secretary was in-charge of colonies and was a member of the cabinet
  • The governor general was in charge of the colonies and was assisted by the colonial executive council
  • The provincial commissioner was in-charge of the province
  • The district commissioner was in-charge of the district
  • The chiefs od emirs who were the actual powerful officers under the district officers they were responsible for tax collection, traditional courts and local authorities

b) Discuss five factors that led to the formation of early political organization in colonial period in Kenya                                                                                                                                                             (10mks)

  • Land alienation
  • Removal of Kipande system
  • Reduction or abolition of poll and hut tax
  • Better working conditions
  • Improvement of wages
  • Provision of better education for Africans
  • Abolition of destocking policy
  • Encourage African participation in cash crop economy
  • A share of African participation in the government

19 a) State three aims od K,A.U.                                                                                                      (3mks)

  • To help Eluid Mathu in the new task of representing African interest in the LEGCO
  • To coordinate African nationalist activities
  • Abolition of kipande system
  • Free education for Kenyan Africans
  • More trading opportunities for Africans
  • Return of alienated land
  • Release of African political prisoners

b) Explain five factors that led to the Mau Mau uprising in colonial Kenya.                                                (12mks)

  • Loss of independence to Europeans
  • Land alienation
  • Growing unemployment as  well as deteriorating living  and working conditions
  • Oppression  by cruel chiefs and colonial police
  • Refusal by colonial government to introduce political reforms
  • Racial discrimination
  • Disillusionment of ex-soldiers failure by colonial government to fulfil the promises made during recruitment for the war effort

20 a) State five factors that led to the formation of trade unions in colonial Kenya.                         (5mks)

  • Introduction of poll tax
  • Low wages
  • Improvement in housing, food ratio, medical facilities
  • Racial discrimination. Africans doing the same jobs with whites were paid less
  • Conditions of employment were  pathetic overworked and underpaid
  • Partiality and disrespect shown to African workers whenever they were employed.

b) Identify ways in which trade union movement contributed to the struggle for independence in Kenya.                                                                                                                                                       (10mks)

  • Release of political prisoners e.g Harry Thuku
  • Trade unions sensitized workers about the importance of joining political parties that struggled for independence
  • They organised strikes and boycotts to oppose some policies of colonial government
  • They contributed money for political parties to enable them sustain the struggle for independence
  • They provided relevant training ground for nationalist leaders e.g Tom Mboya and Martin Shikuku
  • When political parties were banned trade unions continued with the nationalist activities