- State the MAIN function of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) (1 mark)QUES 16,DIST 1
- a) State FIVE features or characteristics of the Cold War. (5 marks)
b) What were the effects of the Cold War on international relations? (10 marks)
QUES 23,DIST 1
3.Identify two agencies of the United Nations which are concerned with development (2mk)QUES 14,DIST 2
4. Mention the United Nations secretary general who perished in a plane crash during the Congo crisis of 1960 (1mk)QUES 16,DIST 2
5. Identify five aims of Non Aligned Movement (NAM) (5mks)QUES 23a,DIST 2
6. Name one country in Africa where the cold war was witnessed (1 Mrk )QUES 12,DIST 4
7.State two functions of the secretariat in the united Nations organization (2 Mrks )QUES 13,DIST 4
8. a. State any five results of the Versailles treaty after the first world war (5 Mks)
b. Explain five factors that enabled the end of the cold war (10 Mks) QUES 20,DIST 4
9. State three benefits of international relations (3 Mks )QUES 21a,DIST 4
10. Name one organization of the UNO which was formed to promote educational activities
in the world. (1mk)QUES 14,DIST 5
11. Explain the steps taken by the super-powers to ease the cold war (10mks)QUES 21b,DIST 5
12. Give two reasons why the United Nations Organizations was formed. (2 mks)QUES 15,DIST 6
13. Explain six challenges that have undermined the existence of the Non-Aligned
Movement. (12mks)QUES 23b,DIST 6
14. Name two permanent member states of the UNO. (2mks)QUES 11,DIST 7
15.Give the role played by the International court of Justice in the Bakaz region in Africa in 2004 . (1mk)QUES 12,DIST 7
16. a) State five objectives of Non – aligned Movement. (5mks)
b) Explain five effects of cold war (10mks)QUES 23,DIST 7
17. Name one permanent member state of the united Nation’s Security Council. (1mk)QUES 14,DIST 8
18.Identify the main policy making organ of the organization of Commonwealth of Nations. (1mk)QUES 15,DIST 8
19. State two emerging problems facing the world Health Organization. (2mks)QUES 18,DIST 8
20. Name one agency of the United Nations Organization which deals with the problems of health
(1mk)QUES 15,DIST 9
21. Name one member of the common wealth from Africa that is not a former colony of Britain (1 mk)QUES 15,DIST 10
22. Apart from Koffi Annan, name any two other former secretary Generals of the United Nations. (2mks)QUES 14,DIST 11
23. a) Identify five objectives of the non – Aligned movement. (5mks)
b) Discuss the steps taken by superpowers to ease the cold war in the twentieth century (10mks)QUES 22,DIST 11
24. a) State five objectives of the non-aligned movement. (5mks)
b) Explain the factors that undermine the activities of the non-aligned movement since 1947. (10mks)QUES 20,DIST 12
25. a) State the importance of international relations. (5mks)
b) Explain five ways through which the United Nations Organizations (UNO) has
attempted to promote world peace and security. (10mks)QUES 23,DIST 12
26. State main function of the international labour organizational as an agency of United Nations organization. (1mk).QUES 13,DIST 13
27. State two objectives of the non-aligned movement. (2mks)QUES 12,DIST 14
28. (a) Identify the weapons that were used during the cold war. (3mks)
(b) Explain six factors that led to the easing of the cold war. (12mks)QUES 23,DIST 14
29. Define ‘non aligned movement’ (1 mk)QUES 14,DIST 15
30.Identify two weapons used during the cold war. (2 mks)QUES 15,DIST 15
31. Identify the main factor that led to the end of the cold war. (1mk)QUES 16,DIST 16
32. Which was the main aim of Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)? (1mk)QUES 15,DIST 17
33. List two duties of the international court of justice based in The Hague? (2mks)QUES 16,DIST 18
34.What was the main objective for the formation of UNO? (1mk)QUES 17,DIST 18
35. a) State five factors leading to the easening of the cold-war (5mks)
b) Explain five challenges facing non-aligned movement (10mks) QUES 24,DIST 18
36. What is the main function of the security council of the UNO? (1 mk)QUES 15,DIST 19
37. a) State three objectives of the Non –aligned movement (3 mks)
b) Explain six factors that undermined the activities of Non-aligned movement (12 marks)QUES 22,DIST 1
38. Explain five factors that led to the decline of cold war. (10 mks)QUES21 b,DIST 20
39. (a) Outline five challenges facing non-aligned movement (NAM) (5 mks) QUES 23a,DIST 20
ANSWERS TO INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
- State the main function of the International court of justice
- To settle international disputes e.g. over boundaries, treatment of diplomatic consular officers, fishing regulations etc. QUES 16,DIST 1
- a) Give 5 ways in which the powers of the president are checked in the United states of America.
- Congress checks the powers of the president e.g. the people appointed by the president must be approved by the senate.
- Congress can refuse to approve the use of government funds for a foreign policy it disagrees with e.g. war.
- Congress can impeach a sitting president if his conduct in his office is not satisfactory.
- The supreme court can declare a president to have acted unconstitutionally
- The constitution limits any individual to 2 –4 years term as a president.
- The mass media have acted as a major check on presidential powers. The president’s every action or speech is closely monitored by the media.
- Pressure groups also help to check presidential actions.
- Public opinion plays a vital role in limiting the president’s actions.
Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks
b) Explain the advantages of the federal system of government in U.S.A
- Makes it possible for a number of states to work as one political unit.
- It enables member states to solve common problems together.
- It ensures that the interests of smaller states are protected.
- It enables people of different states to meet and interact.
- Member states benefit from the common pool of resources.
- It establishes common grievances.
- It promotes trade within the federation by eliminating problem of custom duties & boundaries.
- It ensures that the federal government does not over use its powers.
- States are able to tackle common problems together.
- Existence of a joint defence force ensures security for small states.
- Protects the interests of smaller states.
Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks QUES 23,DIST 1
3.-United Nations Development Programme(UNDP)
-U.N. conference on trade and development (UNCTAD)
– U.N. industrial Development Organisation(UMDO)
– International Development Association (IDA) Any 2x1mk QUES 14,DIST 2
4. Dag Hammarskfold. 1×1 1mk QUES 16,DIST 2
5. .a)To safeguard the sovereignty of member states
- To fight for decolonization of developing nations
- To work for disarmament of super – power
- To promote economic dependence of member states
- To fight racism
- To promote neutrality among members
- To discourage military alliances advocate by super power
- To give members identity to speak with one voice in the UN programmes.
- To pursue an independent policy on peaceful co-existence
- To make funds available for improvement of agriculture to ensure increased food production
- To establish a new economic world order to ensure favorable terms of trade QUES 23a,DIST 2
6. Name one country in Africa where the cold war was witnessed
- Mozambique 1 x 1 = 1 Mark QUES 12,DIST 4
7.State two functions of the secretariat in the UNO
- Registers treaties
- Draws the agenda of UNO meeting
- Prepare minutes
- Translation of the conferences proceedings
- Publishing reports
- Undertaking research
- Day to day administration/ executive arm of the UNO
- Deals with correspondence / mail 1 x 2 = 2 Marks QUES 13,DIST 4
8 a. Five results of the Versailles treaty
- Germany lost her overseas possession to the league of Nations
- Germany was blamed for the outbreak of the war
- Germany had to pay huge war indemnity
- Germany was to reduce are arms
- The union between Germany and Austria was forbidden
- Led to creation of Yugoslavia
- Turkey lost her territories to the league
- An independent Hungarian state was created
- Led to the creation of the league of Nation 1 x 5 = 5 Marks
b. Five factors that enabled the end of the cold war
- Convening of disarmament conferences e.g. SALT I AND SALT II
- Collapse of communism
- Attempts by USA to have friendship ties with USSR
- Reopening of talks between USA and USSR on limitation of strategic arms
- Disintegration of USSR into separate republics
- Cancellation of Warsaw pact
- Establishment of western democracies in former Soviet controlled area e.g. Germany and Poland
- Adoption of Liberal policy by Mikhail Gorbachev
- Policy of peaceful co-existence by Khrushchev president of USSR IN 1953
- Adoption of the détente policy 2 x 5 = 10 Marks QUES 20,DIST 4
9. Three benefits of international relations
- Promotes world understanding through cultural exchange
- Promotion of peace and security through peaceful settlement of disputes
- Nations can solve issues of global concern e.g. global warming, desertification etc
- Enables exchange of skills, knowledge and technology necessary for industrial growth
- Financial assistance is granted to developing countries
- Expansion of international trade and commerce
- Economic growth due to cordial relations between nations (3 x 1 = 3 marks QUES 21a,DIST 4
10. – UNESCO – United Nations Educational, scientific and cultural organizations (1 x 1 = 1mk) QUES 14,DIST 5
11. USSR leaders who came into power after Stalin exercised flexibility
– Negotiation between the superpowers to reduce arms eg. Strategic Arms Limitation Talk (SALT)
– Liberated policies of Gorbachey in which he opened the West
– Fall of communist rule in Eastern Europe and ushering of Western democracies in
– The role played by Ronald Reagan of USA by encouraging peace talks with Russia and
– Unification of Germany
– Russia’s support for the gulf war
– The dissolution of the Warsaw pact – military pact for the communist bloc
(any 5 x 2 = 10mks)QUES 21b,DIST 5
12. Give two reasons why the United Nations Organizations was formed. (2 mks)
– To promote international peace and security.
– To promote respect for human rights and freedom.
– To protect interests of minority groups.
– To prevent another world war
– To promote international understanding /co-operation. (2 x 1 = 2 mks) QUES 15,DIST 6
13 Explain six challenges that have undermined the existence of the Non-Aligned
– Political instability in many member states/civil wars in member states.
– Members give priority to the national interest.
– It does not have a permanent secretariat.
– Many members still have strong ties with their former colonial masters.
– Personality difference between leaders of the member states.
– End of cold war has made it almost irrelevant.
– Membership is too large making it coordination very difficult by its loose administration.
Boarder disputes amongst members states.
– Members belong to other organizations with conflicting interests. (2 x 6 = 12 mks) QUES 23b,DIST 6
14. Name two permanent member states of the UNO. ( 2 mks)
15. Give the role played by the International court of Justice in the Bakazl region in Africa in 2004 . ( 1 mk)
– It arbitrated on the dispute between Nigeria and Cameroon over border conflict
and Bakzi region. QUES 12,DIST 7
16. a) State five objectives of Non – aligned Movement. (5mks) – Fight decolonization
– Fight against racial discrimination
– Discourage Neo – colonialism.
– Participate in UNO programmes.
– Have one voice in international affairs.
– Get better terms of trade.
– Promote neutrality among member states by not aligning with any power block.
– Discourage bilateral and multilateral military alliances with superpowers.
– Improve agriculture and raise food production by availing funds.
( Any 5 x 1 = 5 mks)
b) Explain five effects of cold war ( 10 mks)
– Led to splitting up of countries e.g north and South Korea.
– Suspicion and mistrusts between nations
– Super power rivalry in Africa.
– In certain areas it led to real war e.g Vietnam.
– Led to the space race, Spearheaded by the USSR in 1957.
– Led to international insecurity and disruption of world peace.
(Any 5 x 2= 10 mks)
– Led to splitting up of countries e.g North and South Korea.
– Suspicion and Mistrust between nations.
– Super power rivalry in Africa.
– In certain areas it led to real war e.g Vietnam.
– Led to the space race, spear headed by the USSR in 1957.
– Led to international insecurity and disruption of world peace. QUES 23,DIST 7
17. One permanent member state of Security Council
-United state of America 1×1=1mk QUES 14,DIST 8
18. Main policy organ of common wealth
-Heads of state summit 1×1 =1mk QUES 15,DIST 8
19. . Two emerging problems facing world health organization
-Malnutrition in developing countries
-Rapid population growth
-Emergence of severe anti-respiratory syndrome (SARS) 2×1(2mks) QUES 18,DIST 8
20.Name one agency of the United Nations Organization which deals with the problems of health. (1mk)
i) World Health Organisation (W.H.O)
ii) United Nations Children Emergency Fund (UNCEF) 1 x 1 = 1mk QUES 15,DIST 9
21 Name one member of the common wealth from Africa that is not a former colony of Britain (1mk)
Any 1×1 = 1mark QUES 15,DIST 10
History Paper 2 Topical Questions On International Relations
22. i) Trygve Lie of Norway
ii)Dag Hamnmarskjold of Sweden
iii)Uthank of Burma
iv) Kurt Waldheim of Australia
v) Javier Perez of Peru
vi) Boutros Ghali Boutrous of Egypt. (Any 2 x 1 = 2mks)QUES 14,DIST 11
23. a) i) To fight all forms of discrimination for example racism.
ii) To discourage neo-colonialism.
iii) To encourage the members to actively participate in the UNO programmes.
iv)To avoid participation in bilateral military alliances with great powers.
v) Not to participate in mult-lateral military alliances
vi) To safeguard the sovereignity of member states.
vii)To strive to improve agriculture and increase food production.
viii) To try and get better terms of trade for developing countries.(Any 5×1= 5mks)
b) i) The successor of Josef Stalin in USSR , Nikita Khruscher deliberately
worked towards the co-existence of communism and capitalism.
ii) Negotiations between superpowers to reduce arms e.g. the strategic Arms
Limitation Talks (SALT)
iii)Liberal policies adopted by USSR president Mikhail Gorbacher i.e. alasnot
iv)Chancellor Helmuf Kohl of Germany united East and west Germany thus collapsing the Berlin wall.
v) The USSRs support of the Gulf war (1991) was a sign that the USSR wanted to work with the USA.
vi) USA the president Ronald Reagan encouraged talks with communist countries like the USSR.
vii) The fall of communist rule in Eastern Europe and the decisions of leaders of
Bulgaria and Romania
to embrace democracy.
viii)Dissolution of the wars and fact after the fall of commission in Eastern
Europe. (Any 5×2= 10mks)QUES 22,DIST 11
- To safeguard the sovereignty of member states/to fight colonization in third world countries.
- To work for disarmament of the super power.
- To promote economic independence of member countries.
- To fight racism in the world.
- To promote neutrality among member countries. 5×1=5mks
- Political instability e.g. coups and civil wars.
- Ties with former colonial master has made it difficult for the members to pursue an independent line.
- Border disputes e.g. North and South Korea.
- National interests are placed before those of the movement.
- Lack of funds by member countries hence cannot meet their financial obligations to the movement.
- Ideological differences i.e. other countries are inclined towards the West and others of the East.
- Personality differences between leaders of member states.
- Divided loyalty i.e. members of the movement are also members of other organizations.
- Movement lacks a permanent institutional framework e.g. the secretariat.
- Break up of the Soviet Union has destabilized the movement. 5×2=10mks QUES 20,DIST 12
- Leads to peace between countries.
- Creates trade between nations
- Leads to exchange of economic and cultural exchange practices.
- Leads to educational exchange hence spread of knowledge.
- Leads to settlement of international disputes.
- Leads to exchange of technology which is vital for development.
- Big powers are able to establish bases in other countries. 5×1=5mks
- Peaceful settlement of disputes.
- Application of sanctions.
- Peace keeping operations.
- Promotion of international law
- Development e.g. through world bank
- Creating of general awareness – need for peace
- Regional cooperation e.g. EAC
- Promotion of human rights/refugees.
- Authorizing the use of force to bring peace
- Use of diplomacy to avert war.
- Promoting democracy and human rights.
- Through conserving the environment for posterity. 5×2=10mks QUES 23,DIST 12
26. Main role of International labour Organization.
(i) To promote economic and social standards of workers / promote working conditions or labourers. QUES 13,DIST13
27. State two objectives of the non-aligned movement. (2mks)
- To safe guard sovereignty of member states
- To push for independence of 3rd world countries.
- To work towards disarmament of super powers
- To discourage military alliance, promoted by the super power.
- To promote active participation by 3rd world countries in U.N.O. where they could speak in one voice.
- Promote economic development among member states and discourage neo-colonialism
- Promote neutrality among member states on world affairs.
- To fight racism in he world.
- To pursue an independent policy based on co-existence.
- To establish a new economic order
- To improve agriculture and increase food production and stability of prices.
2 x 1 = 2mks QUES 12,DIST 14
28. (a) Identify the weapons that were used during the cold war. (3mks)
- Economic sanctions
- Military and financial aid to the enemies of the opposite side.
- Military support to the allies of the enemy.
- General policy of non co-operation.
3 x 1 = 3mks
(b) Explain six factors that led to the easing of the cold war. (12mks)
- The death of stalin who was a hardliner and could not negotiate with the Americans. Krushcher assumed presidency and he favoured the policy of peaceful co-existence.
- Series of negotiations between U.S.A. and the USSR leading to signing of strategic arms limitations agreements leading to disarmaments.
- Accession of Gorbachev who adopted a liberal policy. He initiated reforms based on openness and economic restructuring.
- Collapse of communism and the establishment of western democracies in former Soviet controlled areas in Eastern Europe e.g. in East Germany Poland.
- Reagan’s policy. He was more flexible and open minded than his predecessors thus diffusing tension during the cold war.
- Unification of Germany. The crumbling of the Berlin wall in 199- eased the conflict between the East and West. The collapse of the Berlin wall reunited Germany under chancellor Helmut Kohl.
- Russia’s support for the Gulf war. This was proof that the Soviet Union was willing to co-operate with Western capitalists.
- Dissolution of Warsaw pack. The cancellation of the pack was a step forward towards the end of the cold war.
6 x 2 = 12mks QUES 23,DIST 14
29 Define ‘non aligned movement’ (1 mk)
It is a foreign policy initiated by the developing and independent states of Asia, Africa and Middle East in their relationship with the two major blocks; USA, USSR and their allies. QUES 14,DIST 15
30.Identify two weapons used during the cold war. (2 mks)
- economic sanctions
- Financial aid to the enemies of the opposite side.
- Military support to the allies of the enemy. QUES 15,DIST 15
31 The main factor that led to the end of Cold War
- Collapse of USSR 1 x 1 = 1 QUES 16,DIST 16
32- For the newly formed states not to join any power block (1 x 1=1mk)QUES 15,DIST 17
33 i) Orbitrate international disputes / conflicts
ii) Interpret international laws
- Settling disputes on violation of human rights / crimes against humanity
- Regulating nuclear tests
- Determine international rights and international waters. (2×1=2mks)QUES 16,DIST 18
34 To prevent the occurrence of another war / to maintain peace and security in the world (1mk) QUES 17,DIST 18
35 a) i) Death of Stalin in 1953 and the taking over of Nkita Khrushchev who was more flexible
- Dwight Khrushchev compromising stance with the soviet union on a number of issues
- Signing of S.A.L.T agreement after seeing the danger of nuclear weapons
- Michail Gorbacher reformist policies of Glasnost and Perestroika
- Collapse of communism in Eastern European states of Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia
- Collapse of the Berlin wall
- Dissolution of war saw pact
- Cooperation between USA and USSR in the Gulf war
- Disintegration of the soviet union in 1991 (any 5×1=5mks)
b) i) Economic dependence on their former colonial masters
ii) Most of the members are economically poor
iii) Border conflicts between member states
iv) Ideological differences between the member states
- Personality differences between the leaders
- Political instability among the member states e.g. the Horn of Africa
- Inadequate funds due to poor remittance
- Divided loyalty / multiple membership
- National interests which supersede international ones
- Collapse of the soviet union meant an end of the cold war
- Lack of a permanent secretariat to enforce its decisions
(any 5×2=10mks) QUES 24,DIST 18
36. What is the main function of the security council of the UNO (1mark)
To maintain international peace and security (1mark) QUES 15,DIST 19
37 a) State three objectives of the non-aligned movement. (3mrks)
- To safeguard the sovereignty of member states.
- To fight for the decolonization of the third world countries.
- To discourage military alliance promoted by the super powers.
- To work for the disarmament of the superpowers.
- To promote active participation in the UNO programme.
- To promote economic independence of member counties.
- To promote economic independence of member countries.
- To fight racism in the world.
b) Explain six factors that undermined the activities of non-aligned movement. (12mrks)
- Political instability experienced by member states has undermined their contribution to the movement.
- Economic ties between the third world countries and their political masters has made it difficult for the member states to pursue an independent live.
- Border disputes between neighbouring members have weakened their cooperation e.g. between Morocco and Algeria.
- Economic backwardness of some of the members has made it difficult for them to meet their obligations in the movement.
- Ideological differences between member states has undermined their cooperation whereas some countries are inclined towards\ the west and others towards the East.
- Personality differences between leaders of members states was undermined their efforts to discuss issues successfully.
- Membership to other organizations such as OAU. Common wealth etc has made it difficult for some sates to participate actively in the affairs of the movement.
- Breakup of the soviet union has destabilized the movement.
- Nationalism – National interest have conflicted with the objectives of the movement.
(6 pts x 2 = 12 marks) QUES 22,DIST 19
38 Outline five challenges facing non aligned movement (NAM) since its inception (5mks)
- Political instability among members e.g. civil wars, military coups.
- There is still neo-colonialism in some independent countries (continued ties with their formed colonial masters)
- Border disputes among her members state e.g. Morocco and Algeria, India and Pakistan
- Inadequate finances as most of the countries are poor
- Most countries are more interested in their own affairs
- There has been personality conflicts which have undermined any fruitful discussions
- N.A.M. does not have permanent secretariat therefore hard to
co-ordinate its activities
- Ideological differences. Some members are inclined towards capitalism and other communism hence undermining the co-operation
- Conflicting interest: Member countries are also member of other organization and not fully committed to the movement
- Does not have any army to help her carry out her activities effectively.
- The cold war was “sucked” in some third world countries making meaningful co-operation impossible
- Collapse of communism and the disintegration of the soviet union living one super power U.S.A posed the challenge of its redefinition of aims and objectives
Points should be explained 1×10 =10 mks QUES 23a,DIST 20