- Give one limitation of barter as a method of trade. (1 mark) QUES 5,DIST 1
- a) Outline five ways in which Tuaregs contributed to the development of Tran Saharan trade.
b) Explain five ways in which Tran Saharan Trade led to the development of Kingdoms in Western Sudan. (10 marks) QUES 17,DIST 1
- Identify two methods used to acquire slaves during the Trans – Atlantic trade (2mks) QUES 4,DIST 2
- List two European countries that were actively involved in the Trans-Atlantic trade (2mks) QUES 4,DIST 5
- Identify one type of trade. (1 mk) QUES 7,DIST 6
- a) Name three West African Kingdoms which grew as a result of the Trans-Saharan Trade. (3mks)
b) Describe the organization of the Trans-Saharan trade. (12mks) QUES 19,DIST 6
- Name the main item of trade which was obtained from West Africa during the triangular trade.(1mk) QUES 6,DIST 8
- a) State five factors which led to the development of the Trans – Saharan Trade (5mks)
b) Explain five effects of the Trans – Saharan Trade on the people of Western Sudan (10mks) QUES 19,DIST 9
- How did the Trans – Atlantic trade lead to the eventual colonization of West Africa by European powers in the 19th century? (2mks) QUES 6,DIST 10
- State one advantage of the currency method of trade (1mk) QUES 4,DIST 11
- Which was the main method of trade in Africa during the pre-colonial period? (1mk) QUES 5,DIST 12
- a) State three methods that were used to acquire slaves from the interior of Africa during the Trans Atlantic trade. (3mks)
b) Explain six reasons why the British Parliament made a decision to abolish slave trade by 1807. (12mks) QUES 19,DIST 12
13. (a) What three problems were faced by traders during the Trans-Saharan trade in pre-colonial Africa? (3mks).
(b) Discuss the organization of the trans-Saharan trade in the pre-colonial Africa. (12mks). QUES 17,DIST 13
14. (a) Give three characteristics of Regional trade during 18th Century. (3mks)
(b) What are the factors that led to the decline of trans-Saharan trade? (12mks) QUES 19,DIST 14
15. What was the main commodity of trade during the Trans-Atlantic trade? (1 mk) QUES 4,DIST 15
16. Name two European countries that participated in Trans-Atlantic Trade. (2mks) QUES 4,DIST 17
17. Give two advantages of money system in trade (2 marks) QUES 8,DIST 19
18. a) State three roles played by the Tuaregs in the Trans-Saharan trade. (3 marks)
b) Explain six effects of the Trans-Saharan trade (12 marks) QUES 17,DIST 19
19. List two items of trade acquired from Europe during the Trans-Atlantic slave trade (2mks) QUES 7,DIST 20
20. (a) State five factors that contributed to the development of Trans-saharan trade. (5 mks)
- What were the positive effects of trans-saharan trade? (10 mks) QUES 18,DIST 20
History Paper 2 Topical Questions and ANSWERS TO TRADE
- Give one limitations of barter as a method of trade.
- Lack of double coincidence of wants
- Some products are indivisible
- Bulky goods are not easy to transport
- Language barrier
- Difficult to determine the exchange rate.
Any 1 x 1 =1 mark QUES 5,DIST 1
- a) Outline five ways in which the Tuaregs contributed to the development of Trans-Saharan trade.
- Guided traders through the desert.
- Provide security to the caravans
- Took care of the oasis
- Acted as interpreters to the traders
- Arranged for provision of water and accommodation
Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks
b) Explain five ways in which the Trans-Saharan trade led to the development of
kingdoms in western Sudan.
- Source of state revenue through import and export taxes paid by traders.
- Kings acquired horses & fire arms which they used to establish strong armies to defend & expand the kingdoms.
- Islam acted as a unifying factor
- Islamic sheria which was introduced by traders was used in administration of the kingdoms.
- The kings were able to acquire personal wealth which helped them command respect and to reward their royal subject.
- The trade stimulated local trade which generated state wealth.
- Muslim personnel were used by kings as advisors & secretariat, which led to effective administration.
- The trade motivated the kings to establish diplomatic links with North Africa and countries of the Middle East.
- The trade motivated the kings to acquire more territories so that they could acquire the benefits.
Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks QUES 17,DIST 1
- Identify two methods used to acquire slaves during the Trans – Atlantic trade
- Debtors were sold as slaves
- Through raids
- Prisoners of war were sold as slaves
- Enticement using sweets
- Criminal and outcasts were sold as slaves. Any 2 points = 2mks QUES 4,DIST 2
- – Portugal
- – Spain
- – Holland
- – France (Any 2 points, 2 x 1 =2mks) QUES 4,DIST 5
5. Identify one type of trade. (1 mk)
– Regional trade.
– International trade. QUES 7,DIST 6
6. a) Name three West African Kingdoms which grew as a result of the Trans – Saharan Trade (3mks)
– Ancient Ghana
– Ancient Songai
– Ancient Mali
– Dahomey (3 x 1 = 3 mks)
b) Describe the organization of the Trans-Saharan trade. (12mks)
– Was between north Africa and west Africa.
– It involved the Berbers of the North Tuaregs of the desert and the people of west Africa.
– Traders from the north traveled in caravans fti boost their security.
– Traders used the camels for the transportation of goods. It took the form of barter/.silent trade.
– Goods from north included guns, horses, salt, etc and from the south included slaves, gold, ivory, skin, etc.
– Northern trade posted their agent along the roots to promote their goods/coordinate the trade.
– Rich traders from the north financed the trade.
– West African leaders offered security to traders in their territories. (2 x 6= 12 mks)QUES 19,DIST 6
7. Name the main item of trade which was obtained from West Africa during the triangular trade
-Slave 1×1=1mk QUES 6,DIST 8
8. State five factors which led to the development of the Trans – Saharan Trade (5mks)
i) The rulers of western-Sudan ensured trade routes were secure e.g Mansa Musa
ii) The existence of good communication network in form of trade routes and used of camels for transport.
iii) Wealth merchants from north Africa loaned traders with camels and capital to buy goods
iv) The close contact between North Africa ; West Africa Southern Europe and middle East increased demand.
v) The greater demand for the available goods in both regions accelerated trade.
vi) The Tuaregs and Berbers (Takslif) guided and guarded traders across the desert.
vii) The existence of oasis contributed to its growth.
viii) West Africa had a sound / strong economic base 5 x 1 = 5mks
b) Explain five effects of the Trans – Saharan Trade on the people of Western Sudan
i) The trade contributed to the development of towns
ii) The revenue from trade was used to expand states / Kingdom.
iii) The rulers of western Sudan acquired horses and firearms for building strong armies
iv) The trade created a social class of wealth merchants.
v) Berbers and Arabs from North African / settled in Western Sudan and intermarried with local people.
v) The people of western Sudan were converted to Islam
vi) Islamic learning (education) such as schools, libraries were established – people received formal education
vii) Arabic architectural designs were introduced.
viii) Islamic laws were introduced and used in administration
ix) It encouraged slave trading which resulted into suffering.
x) The people of western Sudan had a taste for foreign goods
xi) The trade led to development of local industries e.g art and craft.
xii) The Arabic language, mode of dressing and eating were introduced.
xiv) Led to European colonization of West Africa. 5 x 2 = 10mks
QUES 19,DIST 9
9. How did the Trans – Atlantic trade lead to the eventual colonization of West Africa by European powers in the 19th century? (2mks)
- African societies were weakened by slave trade hence could not resist European colonization
- During the trade, Europeans learnt of the immense wealth for European exploitation
- When slave trade was eventually abolished Europeans introduced legitimate trade which they used as a reason to remain in West Africa.
Any 2×1 = 2marks QUES 6,DIST 10
10. i) Money is easy to carry / portable.
ii) Acts as a measure of value for goods & services.
iii) Acts as a measure of wealth
iv) It is a standard means of settling delayed payments.
v) It is used to repay loans. (Any 1×1 = 1mk) QUES 4,DIST 11
11. . – Barter (exchange of goods) 1×1=1mk QUES 5,DIST 12
12. . a)
- War captives
- Leaders sold their subjects.
- By exchanging them with other goods
- Orphans, widows,
- Sale of social misfits
- Selling debtors/panyaring 3×1=3mks
- Opposed by humanitarians.
- Industrial revolution produced machines.
- Need of Africans in homeland to produce raw materials for European industries.
- Independence of USA left Britain with no colony to take slaves.
- Development of legitimate trade which was more profitable
- Leading economists e.g. Adams Smith opposed
- The French revolution of 1789 spread ideas of liberty equality brotherhood to all mankind. 6×2=12mks QUES 19,DIST 12
13. Problems of Trans- Saharan trade.
(i) Inadequate water in the desert.
(ii) Problems of desert insects’ e.g. scorpions which could bite traders.
(iii) Loss of direction in the desert.
(iv) Attack by desert Tuaregs / insecurity.
(v) Harsh climate / very low and high temperatures at night and day time respectively
(vi) Language barrier.
(vii) Inadequate and expensive camels for transport.
(viii) Desert sand storms / poor visibility. 1×3= (3mks).
(b) Organization of trans- Saharan trade
(i) Was conducted between North and West Africa.
(ii) Was conducted across the Sahara desert.
(iii) Camel was used to cross the vast Sahara desert.
(iv) Traders walked in caravan for security.
(v) The desert produced salt among other goods at Taghaza.
(vi) North African Arabs / Berbers provided camels and capital for the trade.
(vii) West Africa produced gold among other goods at wangara.
(viii) The Tuaregs provided security, porterage, guide and translation among other duties.
(ix) West African kings controlled the volume ofgold trade.
(x) Ordinary West Africans cultivated crops for the trade. 1×10= (10mks) QUES 17,DIST 13
14. (a) Give three characteristics of Regional trade during 18th Century. (3mks)
- It involved middlemen
- It covered long distance.
- Involved people who are mainly specialized in trade
- It involved large volume of commodities and many people.
- It had no set market day, goods were sold on arrival.
3 x 1 = 3mks
(b) What are the factors that led to the decline of trans-Saharan trade? (12mks)
- Gold in West Africa became exhausted.
- Tuaregs stopped being guides and started robbing their traders. They also neglected the oases they previously well maintained.
- Political instability. The collapse of empires created anarchy and insecurity therefore disrupting the trading activities e.g. Mali and Songhai.
- Portuguese and Spaniards attacked and captured Morrocco causing the decline in the area.
- The Ottoman Empire attacked and occupied Egypt and Tripoli creating further anarchy and insecurity.
- The development of the Trans-Atlantic trade gave it competition and led to its decline.
- The anti-slave trade crusade waged by the British philanthropist and subsequent abolition of trade led to the demise of the Tran Saharan trade.
- Colonization of African continent by European powers since the African commercial activities were marginalized.
- European powers since the African commercial activities were marginalized.
- European penetration of the interior region impacted negatively on importance of middlemen.
- Establishment of commercial ports on the West African coast and use of navigable rivers rendered caravan trade unpopular as it was slow.
6 x 2 = 12mks QUES 19,DIST 14
15. What was the main commodity of trade during the Trans-Atlantic trade? (1 mk)
- Slaves QUES 4,DIST 15
16. – Britain
– Spain (Any 2 x 1=2mks)QUES 4,DIST 17
17. Give two advantages of money system in trade
- It is not bulky
- Money is a store of value or wealth
- It is easily divisible into smaller units.
- It is a measure of value for goods and services. (2pts x 1 = 2marks) QUES 8,DIST 19
18. a) State three roles played by the Tuaregs in the Trans-Saharan trade (3marks)
- They acted as guides.
- They provided security to traders.
- They acted as interpreters.
- They maintained the oasis.
- Provided food and accommodation to traders.
3pts x 1 = 3mks)
b) Explain six effects of the Trans-Saharan trade 12 marks
- A class of wealthy Arabs and African traders came up.
- It led to the spread of Islamic religion
- Trading centres became big urban centres –led to the growth of town e.g. Gao, Kano, Saleh, Timbukta.
- Transport facilities were improved.
- Led to the settlement by the Arabs and the Swahili traders in West Africa.
- Led to intermarriages between the Arabs and the Africans.
- New industries were introduced like leather and textile industries.
- It increased warfare
- It introduced new cultural value sin W. Africa e.g. people adapted New styles of dressing and eating habits.
- Led to the introduction of empires e.g. Mali, Sonhai and Ghana.
- Led to the depopulation of W. Africa through slave trade.
- Opened W. African to the outside world. (6pts x 2 = 12 marks) QUES 17,DIST 19
19 List two items of trade acquired from Europe during the Tran’s Atlantic slave Trade (2mks)
- Metal bars
- Firearms QUES 7,DIST 20
20. State five factors that contribute to the development of Trans-Saharan trade (5mks)
- The presence of Oasis in the desert was vital as they acted as resting places to Merchants
- The camels and horses were available they provided a means of transport for the traders
- The tuaregs guided the traders in the desert.
- There were capable rulers who offered protection to the traders in West Africa
- Existence of local trade which provided a good foundation on which trade could thrive
- There was high demand for scarce goods like gold in North African
- Availability of items of trade in both North Africa and West Africa
- Availability of capital from the Berber merchants of North Africa
- Enterprising merchants both in North Africa and West Africa
- Existence of well established trade routes.
(b) What were the positive effects of Tran Sahara trade (10mks)
- The trade led to development of towns in West Africa e.g. (Gao, Timbuktu, Taghaza KumbiSale and Kano)
- It led to the spread of Islam in West Africa
- It led to the emergence of a class of wealthy merchants in West Africa
- The trade introduced new cultural values in West Africa based on Arabic and Islamic culture e.g. modes of dressing and eating mannerisms
- Trade led to introduction of Arabic architectural designs in West Africa
- Led to the development of empires e.g. Mali
- Sharia law was introduced in the sates that accepted Islam in Western Sudan
- Islamic system of education was introduced in the Sudan belt e.g. the University of Timbuktu and schools
- Trade stimulated the emergence and growth of smithing technology and industry e.g. gold smithing, dyeing cloths in Western Sudan
- Introduction of Iron tools which boosted agricultural production in Western Sudan
- Improved mode of transport in the region e.g. introduction of camels and horses
- Population increased due to increased food production
1x 10 = 10 mks QUES 18,DIST 20