- Name the territories acquired from France by Germany during Franco-Prussian war of 1870.
(2 marks) QUES 12,DIST 1
- Mention the role of religion in Chimurenga uprising. (1 mark)
- State the main political factor that sparked off the scramble and partition of
Africa among the European powers (1mk) QUES10,DIST 2
4 a) Name three treaties signed between Lewanika and the British representatives (3mrks)
b.)Explain six factors which influenced Lewanika of the Balozi to collaborate with the British (12mrks) QUES 19,DIST 2
5. State two terms that were agreed upon during the Berlin conference (1884 – 1885) by the European powers 2Mrks QUES 9,DIST 4
6. a. State five benefits enjoyed by the assimilated Africans in the four communes of Senegal during the colonial period (5 Mrks)
b. Explain five factors that undermined the application of assimilation policy by the French 10 (Mrks) QUES 19,DIST 4
7. Mention two territorial disputes that made it necessary to convene the Berline conference (2mks) QUES 9,DIST 5
8. Name three political antagonists who were involved in 1960 Congo crisis (3mks)QUES 22a,DIST 5
9. Give two political factors that contributed to the scramble and partition of Africa. (2 mks)QUES 9,DIST 6
10.State one economic effect of the Chimurenga war. (1 mk) QUES 10,DIST 6
11. a) Give three reasons why Lewanika made his people to collaborate with the British.(3mks)
b) Explain six effects of the Buganda collaboration with the British. (12mks)QUES 20,DIST 6
12. Where was Samoure Toure of the Mandinka deported to after his capture in 1898? (1mk)QUES 7,DIST 7
13. Identify two political antagonists in the 1960 Congo crisis. (2mks)QUES 9,DIST 7
14. Give three communities that collaborated with Europeans in Africa. (3mks)QUES 19a,DIST 7
15. State one the condition given to king Lobengula of Ndebele when he signed a treaty with Rev Robert Moffat during the scramble for Africa. (1mk) QUES 9,DIST 8
16.State two treaties signed between Lewanika of Lozi and the British during the process of European colonization. (2mks) QUES 10,DIST 8
17. (a) State the roles of Christian missionaries in European colonization of Africa. (5mks)
(b) Explain five reasons why Kabaka Mutesa of Buganda kingdom collaborated with the
British in the 19th century (10mks) QUES 21,DIST 8
18. State two reasons why Kabaka Mutesa I welcomed Christian missionaries into his Kingdom
in the nineteenth century (2mks) QUES 9,DIST 9
19. a) Identify five challenges which European colonialists faced as they established their rule in Africa (5mks)
b) Explain five reforms that were introduced by the German administration after the Majimaji uprising. (10mks) QUES 21,DIST 10
20. Give one strategic factor that led to European invasion of Africa and the process of colonization (1mk) QUES 10,DIST 11
21. a) Give three terms of Buganda Agreement of 1900 (3mks)
b) Discuss the results of African collaboration with the Europeans in the twentieth century (12mks) QUES 21,DIST 11
22. Name two African leaders who collaborated with European imperialists during the 19th Century. (2mks) QUES 9,DIST 12
23. Identify two chartered companies which were used to administer European possessions in Africa. (2mks) QUES 11,DIST 12
24. Name the treaty which marked the spheres of influence in East Africa in 1886. (1mk) QUES 13,DIST 12
25. State two missionary factors that contributed to the European scramble for and partition of Africa. (2mks) QUES 9,DIST 13
26. Give any two terms of the Berlin conference (1884-1885) in West Germany. (2mks). QUES 12,DIST 13
27. Identify two chartered companies which were used to administer European possessions in Africa. (2mks) QUES 7,DIST 14
- Name one strategic factor which led to the scramble for colonies in Africa in the 19th century.
(1mk) QUES 8,DIST14
29. (a) Give five terms of the coryndom treaty of 1900 between Lewanika of Lozi and the British.
- What were the results of collaboration between Lewanika of Lozi and the British in the 19th century? (10mks) QUES 21,DIST 14
30.Name two African communities that participated in the maji maji rebellion 1905 – 1907. (2 mks) QUES 9,DIST 15
31. (a) Give five reasons why the Buganda collaborated with the British. (5 mks)
(b) Explain the results of Buganda collaboration with the British. (10 mks) QUES 21,DIST 15
32. What was the main cause of the failure of the mwanga revolt of 1897 against the british. (1mk) QUES 10,DIST 16
33. Identify the main aim of the Berlin conference between 1884 and 1885. (1mk) QUES 12,DIST 16
34. Mention one way through which Samore Toure used diplomacy to prevent the French invasion ofMandinka (1mk) QUES 10,DIST 17
35. a) List down five reasons why Kabaka Mutesa Collaborated with the British (5mks)
b) Discuss the results of Lewanika with the British (10mks) QUES 21,DIST 17
36. State two reasons why Kabaka Mutesa had to welcome Christian missionaries to Buganda (2mks) QUES 7,DIST 18
37. State two causes of the 1973 economic crisis in Congo. (2mks) QUES 10,DIST 18
38. a) What were the terms of the Berlin conference of 1884 – 1885 (5mks)
b) Explain the political effects of European partition and colonialism of Africa. (10mks)
QUES 21,DIST 18
39. Name two chartered companies which were used to administer European colonial possessions in Africa. (2 marks) QUES 11,DIST 19
40. State one way through which the European maintained peace among themselves during the partition of Africa (1 mark)QUES 13,DIST 19
41.State two economic impacts of the partition of Africa. (2mks) QUES 11,DIST 20
42.Mention one provision in the Buganda agreement on Land (1mk) QUES 12,DIST 20
43. In which one way did Lewanika benefit by collaborating with the British. (1mk) QUES 15,DIST 20
ANSWERS TO EUROPEAN INVASION OF AFRICA AND THE PROCESS OF COLONIZATION
- Name the territories acquired by Germany from France during the Franco-Prussian war of 1870 –1871.
2 x 1 = 2 QUES 12,DIST 1
- Mention the role of religion in Chimurenga uprising
- Source of unity
- Enhance morale/confident QUES 13,DIST 1
- – maintenance balance of power 1×1=1mk QUES 10,DIST 2
4.a) The wave concession – 1889
The Lochner treaty – june 1890
The Lawly treaty – june 1889
Corydon treaty – 1900. 3×1 = 3mks
b. he wanted to protect his kingdom against the Germans and Portuguese
was influenced by European missionaries e.g corlland and Mackenzie wanted to promote trade between his people and the British he saw futility of resisting he wanted to preserve the economic structure of the Lozi people was influenced by chief Khama of Ngwato
wanted to protect his kingdom against the Ndebele and Shona he desired western civilization, education and medicine for his people he lacked support from his own people and so sought help from outside. Any 6 points x2 = 12mks QUES 19,DIST 2
4.Two terms that were agreed upon during the Berlin conference
- Created spheres of influence
- Rule of effective occupation
- Abolition of slave trade by the powers
- River Zambezi, Congo and Niger were free for navigation by all powers
- King Leopold was recognized as a sovereign ruler of the Congo free state
Protection of all European Nationals in each economy 1 x 2 =2 QUES 9,DIST
5. a. Five benefits enjoyed by assimilated African in the four communes of Senegal
- Were granted French citizenship
- Were employed in the French civil service
- Enjoyed the same voting rights as the Frenchmen
- Were treated as “African Frenchmen ”
- Enjoyed protection rights under the French judicial system
- Granted education opportunities like French men
- Had similar trading rights as their French counterparts
- Were excepted from forced labour, taxation, arbitrary arrests and other discrimination
- Could be represented in the French chamber of deputies
- Had same civil and political rights as their French counter parts
- Had same local authority structures as those in France 1 x 5 = 5 Marks
b. Five factors that undermined the application of assimilation policy
- It was confined only to the four communes of Senegal
- It was expensive to implement
- Cultural disparity between the French and the African feared that its full implementation would make exploitation of African resources impossible
- French traders saw it as posing unnecessary completion in trade between African and Frenchmen
- African elected in French parliament were dissatisfied as they continued to be discriminated by their French counterparts
- Some French men could not agree to fuse their culture with that of the Africans which was seen as backward
- Africans who were largely Muslims could not accept to be converted to Christianity
- There were sharp differences between the African and the French legal systems
- Rise of African Nationalism which was opposed to the French’s cultural superiority
5 x 2 = 10 Marks QUES 19,DIST 4
6. – Congo crisis / French activities in Congo
– Egyptian question
– British / French conflicts in West Africa (Any point x 1 = 1mk) QUES 9,DIST 5
7. a) – Patrice Lumumba
– Joseph Kasarubu
– Belgians (3 x 1 = 3mks) QUES 22a,DIST 5
8.Give the main reason why the Bristish applied the policy of direct rule in Zimbabwe. (1 mk)
– They wanted to control resources like minerals in Zimbabwe directly. (1 x 1 = 1mk) QUES 9,DIST 6
9. Name two members of the Triple Entente alliance during the First World War. (2 mks)
– Germany, Italy and Austria. QUES 10,DIST 6
10. a) Give three reasons why Lewanika made his people to collaborate with
the British. (3mks)
– To consolidate his powers.
– He was influenced by Khama the King of Ngwato.
– For his people to get education.
– So the British could protect hrn from his hostile neighbours like the Ndebele.
– To acquire manufactured goods from the Europeans.
– He was influenced by the missionaries. (3 x 1 = 3 mks)
b) Explain six effects of the Buganda collaboration with the British. (12mks)
– Facilitated the spread of Christianity in Buganda.
– Buganda became a springboard from which the British spread their influence in commerce and education..
– Buganda successfully kept off her enemies like Bunyoro.
– Intensified religious conflicts in Buganda.
– Reduced the power of Kabaka as more power was given to the Lukiko and court officials.
– Buganda community got advantage over other tribes by getting earlier western education and involving in administration.
– Created political crisis in Buganda when Mwanga was dethroned. (2 x 6 = 12 mks) QUES 20,DIST 6
11. Where was Samoure Toure of the Mandinka deported to after his capture in 1898? ( 1 mks)
– Gabon. QUES 7,DIST 7
12. Identify two political antagonists in the 1960 Congo crisis. ( 2 mks)
– Patrice Lumumba
– Joseph Kasarubu
– Moise Tshombe QUES 9,DIST 7
13. a) Give three communities that collaborated with Europeans in Africa. (3mks) – Agikuyu
– Shona Any 3 x 1 QUES 19a,DIST 7
14. State main condition given to king Lobengula in the Moffat treaty
-Not to enter into any diplomatic relations or sign any treaty with any other country without the permission of the British 1×1=1mk QUES 9,DIST 8
15. Two treaties signed between Lewanika and the British
-The Lochner treaty of 1890
-The Coryndon treaty of 1900 2×1=2mks QUES 10,DIST 8
16 a) State the role of missionaries in European colonization of Africa
-They created an atmosphere of friendship with the Africans through giving them gifts
-They published reports about the about the African continent and equipment the colonialist with geographical knowledge
-They often pressurized their government to intervene in Africa on their behalf when they faced hostility.
-Some actively participated in the conquest of parts of Africa
-The missionaries strongly believed that European rule would bring civilization to Africa and considered their moral duty to introduce civilization to Africans.
-The missionaries had direct contact with the people of the interior of Africa, the preaching of love pacified the Africans and calm their emotions
-They shaped the public opinion in favour of imperial control of Africa e.g. David Livingstone’s report on Malawi 5×1=5mks
b) Explain five reasons why Kabako Mutesa of Buganda kingdom collaboration with the British in the 9th century
-He wanted to acquire western education, medicine and other benefits from missionaries
-He wanted to established centralized religious authority over Buganda inorder to counter-act traditionalists influence, reduce Muslim influence and reduce religious conflicts between Muslims, traditionalists and Christian
-He wanted protection against Mukama of Bunyoro who was a threat to his position and trade
-He wanted protection against Khedive Ismael of Egypt who was expanding his territory southwards
-He had a desire to trade with Europeans as to get their goods like firearms
-He wanted technological experts and skills to be given to his people 5×2=10mks QUES 21,DIST 8
17. Name one colony of Portugal in Africa (1mk)
- Portuguese Guinea 1 x 1 = 1mk QUES 5,DIST 9
18. State two reasons why Kabaka Mutesa I welcomed Christian missionaries into his Kingdom
in the nineteenth century (2mks)
i) To reduce Arabs and Muslim influence.
ii) For help against Omukama of Bunyoro.
iii) To influence new technological skills to his people.
iv) To preserve Bugandas independence.
v) To expand his empire
vi) To get against Khedeve Ismael for Northern Districts 1 x 2 = 2mksQUES 9,DIST 9
19. a) Identify five challenges which European colonialists faced as they established their rule in Africa (5mks)
- They were attacked by tropical diseases
- Hostility from some African communities
- Poor means of transport and communication
- Shortage of medicine and food
- Difficult terrain
- Lack of common language between Africans and Europeans
Any 5×1 = 5marks
b) Explain five reforms that were introduced by the German administration after the Majimaji uprising. (10mks)
- Communal cotton growing was stopped and Africans were encouraged to plant their own cotton and get profit from it
- Forced labour for settler farms was abolished
- Corporal punishment was forbidden and those settlers who mistreated their workers were punished
- Better educational and medical services for Africans were introduced
- Africans were involved in administration of the region as Akidas and Jumbes
- The new governors censured newspaper that supported settlers against Africans
- A new governor who was sympathetic to the cause of Africans was brought
- A colonial department of the German government was formed in 1907 to closely investigate the affairs of German East African company
- Extra taxation of Africans was rejected by the new governor
- Kiswahili was accepted as the official language
- Colonial administration in Tanganyika was tailored to suit the Africans
Any 5×2 = 10marks QUES 21,DIST 10
20. i) Egyptian question
ii) French activities in the Congo
iii) Activities of King Leopold II of Belgium in Congo. (Any 1×1=1mk)QUES 10,DIST 11
History Paper 2 Topical Questions On European Invasion Of Africa And The Process Of Colonization
21. a) i)Half of Buganda land became crownland while the other half left to the
Kabaka and his hencemen.
ii) A hut tax of 3 rupees was to be paid for administration.
iii)Buganda boundaries were defined to include counties acquired from
iv)Kabaka’s three ministers were formally recognized.
v) A British resident was to be stationed in Buganda to advise the Kabaka and
safeguard British interests.
vi) Kabaka’s powers were reduced but he remained a link between the
government and the people. (Any 3×1=3mks)
b) i) African leaders who collaborated got protection against their enemies.
ii) African communities that collaborated lost their independence.
iii)It led to increased trade between the African and Europeans.
iv) Some African leaders were recognized and given new titles e.g. Lewanika
became paramount chief.
v) African communities were subjected to forced labour, taxation and land
vi) African communities benefited from European education, Christianity and medical provision. (Any 6×2=12mks)QUES 21,DIST 11
22. Mutesa of Buganda
- Lenana of the Maasai
- Nabongo of Mumia
- Lewanika of Lozi. 2×1=2mks QUES 9,DIST 12
- The Royal Niger Company (RNC) 2×1=2mks QUES 11,DIST 12
24. – Anglo – German Agreement – 1886. 1×1=1mk QUES 13,DIST 12
25 Missionary factors for colonization
(i) Missionaries sought protection from their mother government against local people.
(ii) European colonialists occupied areas where their missionaries had attached themselves. 2×1= (2mks). QUES 9,DIST 13
26 Terms of the Berlin conference.
(i) Principle of non interference.
(ii) Principle of effective occupation
(iii) Principle of notification.
(iv) Slave trade was to be stopped.
(v) Missionaries to be protected by European power.
(vi) River Niger and Congo declared free for navigation by all European powers.
(vii) The Congo declared a free state of king Leopold (II) of Belguim.
(viii) European powers to develop transport infrastructures in their area. 2×1=2mks QUES 12,DIST 13
27. Identify two chartered companies which were used to administer European possessions in Africa. (2mks)
- Imperial British East Africa company
- Germany East Africa company
- British South Africa company
- Royal Niger company
- x 1 = 2mks QUES 7,DIST 14
28.Name one strategic factor which led to the scramble for colonies in Africa in the 19th century.
- Egyptian question
- Congo crisis/French activities in the Congo
- King Leopard II of Belgium ambitious activities
- East Africa coast due to its deep harbours.
1 x 1 = 1mkQUES 8,DIST 14
29(a) Give five terms of the coryndom treaty of 1900 between Lewanika of Lozi and the British.(15mks)
- The British government was responsible for administration in Balozi
- The company to appoint officials and pay for the administration.
- The company to provide schools, industries, transport, postal and telegraphic facilities.
- Lewanika would only receive 850 sterling pounds and a year as his stipend.
- Traditional Lozi rights over game, iron working and tree cutting for canoe building were guaranteed.
- The company were allowed to acquire land in Batakoe plateau
- The company maintained its rights to prospect minerals in Balozi.
- Lewanika was to stop slavery and witchcraft in his area.
- Lewanika was made chief of Barotse.
5 x 1 = 5mks
- What were the results of collaboration between Lewanika of Lozi and the British in the 19th century? (10mks)
- The Lozi lost their independence and were colonized by the British.Lewanika managed to maintain his position as chief. He became paramount chief although under the British.Traditional practices such as slavery and witchcraft were abolished.The Lozi lost most of their land to the British.The British administrators used the Lozi to extend their control over other areas in northern Rhodesia.The Lozi royal class was reduced to mere tax collectors on behalf of the British.The Lozi people were given key positions in administration in the government.Lewanika’s son and his people received western education.Lewanika lost control over his vassal states. The chiefs in this state could not pay tribute to him since they were the British.
5 x 2 = 10mksQUES 21,DIST 14
30. Name two African communities that participated in the maji maji rebellion 1905 – 7. (2 mks)
- Bena QUES 9,DIST 16
31(a) Give five reasons why the Buganda collaborated with the British. (5 mks)
- To consolidate his position as the king of Buganda.
- He feared the military might of the British.
- Hoped to use the British to fight the religious grops such as Muslims, Catholics and protestants to gain supremacy over the surrounding kingdoms e.g. Bunyoro Kitara.
- Hoped to get military support from the British.
- He feared threats from the North i.e. Kheduve Ismael of Egypt.
- Desired to trade with Europeans to acquire firearms.
- To get western education and medicine.
(b) Explain the results of Buganda collaboration with the British. (10 mks)
- Buganda got protection from her enenmies e.g. Banyoro
- Kabaka powers were reduced.
- Buganda was given a central position in the protectorate.
- Decline of Islamic influence in the kingdom.
- Introduction of Christianity and European influence in Buganda.
- Buganda advanced economically.
- Christian missionaries introduced new technology in Buganda.
- The British used the Buganda to extend their rule over Uganda as a whole.
- The Buganda lost their independence. QUES 21,DIST 15
32. The main cause of the failure of the Mwanga Revolt of 1897 against the British
- The Baganda people supported the British against Mwanga. QUES 10,DIST 16
33. The main aim of the Berlin Conference between 1884 and 1885
- For peaceful partition of Africa. 1 x 1 = 1 QUES 12,DIST 16
34. – Africans were excluded from colonial administration QUES 10,DIST 17
35. a) – External attacks from Bunyoro, Kedhive Ismael
– Wanted European weapons to expand his army
– Wanted western education and Christianity
– To increase his prestige and promote his position
– Wanted to trade with Europeans
– Protection from internal enemies
– Feared to face European might like other resisters. (Any 5 x 1=5mks)
b) – Lozi lost independence to the British
– Christianity spread among the Lozi
– Lewanika retained his position as chief
– traditional practices were abolished
– Lewanika ruled under a British resident
– B.S.A.C exploited minerals in N.Rhodesia
– His sons acquired western education.
– Lewanika lost control over land to the British (Any 5 x 2=10mks)QUES 21,DIST 17
36. i) Wanted to acquire western education and medicine
ii) Wanted to counter the Muslims and traditionalists in his kingdom and establish a centralized religious authority
- He wanted help against khedive ismail’s threat in his northern districts
- The Mukama of Bunyoro was his traditional enemy, he sought help against him too
- Wanted to trade in order to get firearms (2×1=2mks) QUES 7,DIST 18
37. i) Fall in copper prices
ii) Inflation due to political struggle
- High oil prices
- No proper economic policy (2×1=2mks) QUES 10,DIST 18
38 a) i) Any European power declaring sphere of influence should notify others
ii) Effective occupation should follow declaration of sphere of influence
- Rivers Congo- Niger and Zambezi to be open for free navigation.
- Protection of men on the spot regardless of their nationality
- King Leopold I of Congo was recognized as the head of Congo – Free state
- Slave trade and slavery to be abolished
- That any occupation of the coast should be extended to its hinterland (any 5×1=5mks)
b) i) Drawing up of boundaries to create countries
ii) Relative period of peace and stability with the ending o f tribal feuds. Jihads etc
- Loss of African authority / independence
- New judicial systems and laws
- New style of creating leadership e.g. by-elections
- Migration – emigrations to France by Africans (Assimilation) migration to Africa-settlers
- Creation of institutionalized armies / not rag tag tribal armies (any 5×2=10mks) QUES 21,DIST 18
39 .Name two chartered companies which were used to administer European colonial possessions in Africa. (2marks)
- The Royal Niger company
- The British South African Company
- The Germany East African Company
- The Imperial British East African company QUES 11,DIST 19
40. State one way through which the European maintained peace among themselves during the partition of African (1marks)
- By signing treaties among themselves
- By organizing the Berlin Conference to lay down the guiding principles of partition.
QUES 13,DIST 19
41. State two economic impact of partition of Africa (2mks)
- Speeded up economic growth in Europe
- Underdevelopment of African economies
- Africa was introduced to international commerce
- Introduction of wage labour
- Development of infrastructure in colonies
QUES 11,DIST 20
42 Mention one provision in the Buganda agreement on land
- Boundaries of Buganda were defined to include the counties that were acquired during the wars with Bunyoro
- Half of Buganda became crown land
- Freeland titles were granted to Kabaka, royal family, ministers, county chiefs and about 1000 minor chiefs QUES 12,DIST 20
43 In which one way did Lewanika benefit by collaborating with the
- Lewanika retained his position as a paramount chief
- The British built schools, hospitals , transport and communication links in Lewanikas territory
- Lozis were given Key positions in the government under British supervision QUES 15,DIST 20