10.Identify one education commission appointed in Kenya since independence
- Ominde commission
- Gachathi commission
- Mackay commission
- Kamunge commission
- Koech commission 1×1 = 1mk
21.(a) Name the Agricultural scheme established in Kenya after independence
– Million Acre scheme
– Harambee scheme
– Haraka scheme
– Shirika scheme. Any 3×1 = 3mks
(b) Discuss the challenges of multi-party democracy in Kenya
– Many politicians and seniors government official were not ready for multipartism thus incited their supporters to keep out the opposition supporter from their region leading to the 1991 tribal clashes
– Some public servants were used by the executive arm of the government and the ruling party to frustrate the opposition e.g. denying them license to held political meetings
– Many political parties were ethnic based
– Selfish politicians were paid to defect from one party to another
– The ruling party (KANU) used the police and the government owned media to its advantage.
– Opposition parties did not have enough finances unlike KANU.
– Inadequate civil education to the electorate
– The international community interfered with the running of the country favoring certain politicians and parties
-Many citizens voted for incompetence leaders because of bribery due to poverty.
– Most political parties have experienced leadership wrangler. Any 6×2 = 12mks
ANS 10, 21 DIST 2
- a. What factors led to the introduction of multi- party democracy in Kenya in 1992 5 Marks
- Intolerance of KANU to dissenting views of the people which often resulted in the expulsion of those who disagreed
- Alleged rigging of the 1988 general elections by KANU
- Pressure from donor community who tied finances to multi-party democracy
- Repressive measures by the government e.g. denial of licenses for public meetings
- Repeal of section 2 (A) of the Kenya constitution in December 1991
- Influence from other African states which had adopted multi- partysm of Zambia 1 x 5 Marks
b. Explain how the existence of many parties has benefit the people of Kenya 2 x 5 = 10 Marks
- Freedom of assembly and association has been enhanced
- Has facilitated accountability and transparency in the government
- The application of the rule of law has improved
- The fear of a powerful one party dictatorship has been eliminated
- The opposition has acted as a check and balance to minimize the excesses of authority by the government
- Freedom of speech for both individual and mass media has been improved
- A growing number of Kenyans are now more politically aware than before
- It led to repeal of some unjust and oppressive laws e.g. chief act
- Kenya’s image by foreign donor and investors has improved hence economic development
ANS 19 DIST 4
14. Main problem likely to hinder kenya’s realization of vision 2030 (1mk)
-Poverty / inadequate funds
ANS 14 DIST 8
9. – Develop and implement sound food policy.
– Intensify family planning efforts.
– Grow drought resistant crops.
– Irrigation schemes to be started.
– Government to provide credit facilities to farmers to improve agriculture.
– Diversification of eating habits. (2×1=2mks)
10. – Inadequate funds, corruption (1×1=1mk)
ANS 9,10 DIST 12
19.(a) Three internal factors which promoted the re-introduction of multi-party in Kenya
i) Alleged ringing 1988 general election.
ii) The Saitoti constitutional reviews commission report.
iii) Demand by clergy, lawyers and other activities in demand for multiparty democracy.
iv ) KANU treatment of dissident member by expelling and suspending them from the party
v) KANU unwillingness to change due to some critism from members
vi) Determination by the pupolace to free themselves from one party tyranny
Any 3points 1mk each (3×1=3mks)
ANS 19a DIST 13
History Topical Questions on Social, Economic & Political Development & Challenges In Kenya Since Independence- History Paper 1 Revision Answers
11.State two economic challenges that Kenya experienced after independence. (2mks)
- Mass unemployment
- Inadequate manpower/skilled to run the country.
- Investment stagnated due to transfer of capital from Kenya by emigrating white settlers.
2 x 1 = 2 marks
ANS 11 DIST 14
14. – Leadership wrangles
– Political interference
– Inadequate funds
– Unqualified personnel’s (Trainers)
– Low quality facilities
– Low morale/ motivation leading to poaching of players. (2 x 1=2mks)
15. – To train power
– To promote research
– To induct new technology
– Loaning the Jua kali
– To create savings for small scale industries. (1 x 1=1mk)
ANS 14,15 DIST 17
12. i) High enrolment
ii) Staff shortage in schools
- HIV pandemic
- Lack of instructional and infrastructural facilities by classrooms. Laboratories, libraries
- Inadequate funding for free primary and secondary education
- Cheating in national examinations
- Drug abuse in schools. (2×1=2mks)
20. a) i) Right to good food
ii) Right to shelter and clothing
- Right to be nurtured
- Right to adoption
- Right to own a name / nationality
- Care of the disabled child
- Right to medical care
- Right to own property (5×1=5mks)
ANS 12, 20a DIST 18