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KCSE History Prediction Questions and Answers

SECTION A (25 Marks)

Answer all questions in this section in the spaces provided at the end of question 24.

  1. Give the main method used by anthropologists to gather their historical data.                         (1 mark)
  2. Identify the method used in making Sangoan tools.                                                                     (1 mark)
  3. Give the main role of age –set system among the Agikuyu.                                                        (1 mark)
  4. Identify one role played by theatre in Kenya.                                                                               (1 mark)
  5. Mention two functions of Portuguese Captains in administering the Kenyan coast.                   (2 marks)
  6. Outline two ways in which a person can qualify to be a Kenyan citizen by birth.                       (2 marks)
  7. Name two social factors that promote national unity in Kenya.                                                   (2 marks)
  8. List one right of a person under arrest according to the Bill of Rights.                                        (1 mark)
  9. Give two factors that determined the type of constitution in Kenya.                                           (2 marks)
  10. Identify any two roles of the Commissioner according to the East Africa order in Council of 1897. 

 (2 marks)

  1. Identify one reason for the collapse of Gede as an early urban center.                                          (1 mark)
  2. Outline two developmental rights of Kenyan child.                                                                     (2 marks)                     
  3. State two proposals made by the Lennox Boyd constitution.                                                       (2 marks)
  4. Give one commission that was established to look into African Education in colonial Kenya.   (1 mark)
  5. Name the political paper that was published by the Kenya African Union (KAU) periodically.  (1 mark)
  6. Mention one principle of the concept of natural justice.                                                                (1 mark)
  7. State two major challenges facing Health sector in Kenya.                                                          (2 marks)

KCSE History Prediction Questions and Answers

SECTION B: (45 Marks)

Answer any THREE questions from this section in the space provided at the end of question 24.

  1. (a)Mention five communities that comprise the highland Nilotes.                                              (5 marks)

(b)Explain five social effects of Bantu migration into Kenya.                                                  (10 marks)

  1. (a) State five  reasons for the conflict between the Busaidi Sultan of Oman and the Mazrui governors of Mombasa                                                                                                                                 (5 marks)

(b)  Explain five factors which led to the decline of the coastal settlements between 1500 and 1700. 

     (10 marks)                                            

  • (a) Name five Kenyan nationalists that were detained alongside Jomo Kenyatta in Kapenguria in 1952.

                                                                                                                                                  (5 marks)

      (b) Describe five roles of Jaramogi Oginga Odinga in the struggle for independence in Kenya. (10 marks)

  •  (a)Identify five roles of national philosophies in Kenya’s development.                                   (5 marks)

 (b)Explain five problems that have undermined the performance of national philosophies in Kenya.

                                                                                                                                                     (10 marks)


Answer any TWO questions from this section in the space provided at the end of question 24.

  • (a)State the composition of the National Defence Council in Kenya.                                         (3 marks)

       (b)Describe the challenges facing the Kenya Defence Forces.                                                  (12 marks)

  •  (a)Give three sources of the Kenyan law.                                                                                   (3 marks)

  (b)Explain six functions of the civil servants of the National Government of Kenya              (12 marks)

  • (a)State three principles of devolution of government in Kenya.                                                (3 marks)

(b)Discuss six functions of a county Governor in Kenya                                                           (12 marks)

Answers to the History KCSE Prediction Questions

1. State two disadvantages of using caves as shelters by the early human beings during the Stone Age period (2 marks)

  1. Caves could collapse over them.
  2. Wild creatures could bite them.
  3. Human enemies could easily attack them.
  4. Caves were exposed to cold/wind/floods.

                                                                                                            (First 2×1= 2 marks)

2. Name the community in the world that is accredited with the invention of the wheel around 3000 B.C. (1 mark).

The Sumerians.    

                                                                                                                                   (1×1= 1 mark)

3. State two problems faced by Trans Saharan traders when using barter trade (2 marks).

  1. It was difficult to determine the value of items and this tended to prolong transactions.
  2. Sometimes there was lack of double coincident of wants.
  3. Some trade items were indivisible into smaller quantities e.g. a cow.
  4. Some trade items were bulky/heavy to carry to and from the market over long distances.
  5. Some trade items were perishable.
  6. Bargaining was difficult due to lack of common language.

                                                                                                            (First 2×1= 2 marks)           

4. State one advantage of using human portage as a means of transport.  (1 mark)

  1. It is cheap.
  2. It is readily available.
  3. It is flexible.
  4. Accidents are rare.

(First 1×1= 1 mark)

5. Identify one for of picture writing during the early civilization                               (1 mark)


Cuneiform –Sumerians

                                                                                                                          (First 1×1= 1 mark)

6. Give two contributions of the Egyptians to the development of early science.  (2 marks)

  1. Invented geometry which they used on their farms.
  2. They were famous mathematicians and used that knowledge to construct pyramids.
  3. They were skilled in medicine and surgery and this made them to preserve/mummify bodies.
  4. They were involved in astronomy.
  5. They invented the solar calendar.

                                                                                                            (First 2×1= 2 marks)

7. Give the main factor that contributed to the decline of iron industry in Meroe (1 mark)

Shortage of wood fuel/desertification.

                                                                                                                          (First 1×1= 1 mark)

8. Name one type of spirit that existed that existed among the Shona (1 mark).

  1. Vadzimu/family spirit-consulted before any major decision is made in the family.
  2. Mhondoro/clan spirits-consulted over clan problems.
  3. Chamiruka/national spirit-solved issues between clans.

                                                                                                              (First 1×1= 1 mark)

9. Give two reasons why the second location of Samouri Toure’s empire was not as good as the first one during his war with the French (2 marks)

  1. He was cut off from his gold mines at Bure which made him lack revenue to sustain his army.
  2. He was cut off from Freetown where he used to buy firearms.
  3. His southern frontier of the empire was open to French attacks from the Ivory Coast.
  4. Samouri was at war with the communities which he had attacked in his expansion campaign in his second empire.
  5. He was surrounded by his enemies from all sides with the occupation of the Asante Empire by the British.

                                                                                                            (First 2×1= 2 marks)

10. Give two positive effects of assimilation policy in Senegal during the Colonial rule (2 marks).

  1. All colonies were subjected to the same law.
  2. Racial discrimination was minimal in the colonies.
  3. French goods and modern ways spread in the West Africa.
  4. Africans were represented by deputies in the French Chamber of Deputies/allowed to vote.
  5. Educated Africans spearheaded nationalism in West Africa against the colonial rule.

                                                                                                            (First 2×1= 2 marks)

11. State two roles played by the ex-world war soldiers in the growth of African Nationalism After 1945.          (2 marks)                                                

  1. They applied military skills/tactics acquired to fight colonialism;
  2. They trained African Nationalists in military fighting skills;
  3. They joined/formed Nationalist movement;
  4. They organised/mobilised African Nationalists;
  5. They made/serviced the weapons used by the Nationalists.

                                                                                                            (First 2×1= 2 marks)

12. Give one demand that Austria presented to Serbia after the assassination of Austria-Hungary heir apparent Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo (1 mark)

  1. Serbia to suppress all societies organizing anti- Austrian propaganda
  2. Serbia to dismiss all officials that Austria objected
  3. Austrian police to be allowed to enter Serbia to ensure that the above demand are fulfilled./ Take part in investigation.

                                                                                                                    (First 1×1= 1 mark)

13. Give the main reason why the League of Nations was formed. (1 mark)

To promote peace and security in the world /preventing a possible occurrence of another world war.

                                                                                                                                  (1×1= 1 marks)

14. Name two official languages used in the UN general assembly (2 marks)

  1. English
  2. French
  3. Spanish
  4. Chinese
  5. Arabian
  6. Russian

                                                                                                                   (First 2×1= 2 marks)

15. State one function of the court of justice of the COMESA                                     (1 mark)

  1. To hear/adjudicate any disputes among member states.
  2. It ensures proper interpretation and application of the provisions of the COMESA treaty.

                                                                                                                (First 1×1= 1 mark)

16. What was the main ideological differences between Patrice Lumumba and Joseph kasavubu?                                                                                                                      (1 mark)

Kasavubu wanted a federal system of government while Patrice Lumumba wanted a unitary system of government.

                                                                                                                                   (1×1= 1 mark)

17. Identify two types of votes that a presidential candidate in United States of America is subjected to.  (2marks)

  1. Popular Vote.
  2. Electoral College Vote

                                                                                                                  (2×1= 2 marks)


18.a). List three sub-species of Homo sapiens (3 marks).

  1. The Rhodesian man
  2. Neanderthal man
  3. Cro-Magnon.

                                                                                                                            (3×1= 3 marks)

b). Describe the way of life of early human beings during the Old Stone Age period (12 marks).

  1. They made simple stone tools for domestic use/oldowan tools.
  2. Lived in small groups in order to assist each other.
  3. They obtained their food through hunting and gathering.
  4. They used simple hunting methods such as chasing wild animals and laying traps.
  5. They ate raw food because fire had not been invented.
  6. They had no specific dwelling places.
  7. They sheltered from predators by climbing trees and hiding in caves.
  8. They wore no clothing but their hairy bodies kept them warm.
  9. They lived near rivers and lakes.

                                                                                                                 (Any 6×2= 12 marks)

19.a). State three factors that led to the decline of Kilwa as an early urban centre. (3 marks)

  1. Disruption of the gold trade due to frequent wars between the various African communities.
  2. Attack and occupation of Kilwa by the Portuguese who plundered the town.
  3. Dynastic quarrels among the Persian rulers (sultans) in Kilwa led to disunity in the town.
  4. Rise of rival trading centres such as Mombasa and Lamu reduced the town’s importance.
  5. Insubordination from towns controlled by Kilwa such as Sofala.

                                                                                                            (First 3×1= 3 marks)

b). Highlight six factors that have contributed to the growth of Johannesburg city. (12 marks)

  1. Discovery of gold in Witwatersrand.
  2. There was clean water supply from river Vaal which was used for domestic as well as industrial use.
  3. It is situated on a plain (veldt) which make building constructions and communication easy.
  4. Existence of minerals such as diatomite.
  5. The areas surrounding the town have fertile soils therefore agriculturally productive.
  6. Availability of cheap source of labour for mines and industries.
  7. Government policies that favoured and encouraged establishment of industries in Johannesburg.
  8. Availability of banking facilities that availed capital to the investors.
  9. Existence of several industries such as textile, and motor vehicle assembly industries which attracted large population of workers to the city.

                                                                                                                (First 6×2= 12 marks)

20.a). In what ways did Trans-Saharan trade contribute to the rise of Asante kingdom in the 18th century (3 marks).

  1. Through trade with the neighbours the Asante were able to get a lot of revenue that sustained the army and administration of the kingdom.
  2. Through trade, the Asante acquired items like firearms/horses which they used to protect and expand the kingdom.
  3. Trade enhanced exploitation of natural and agricultural resources which fetched the kingdom a lot of revenue.
  4. The gold mined in Asante provided a lot of wealth acquired from Trans Atlantic trade which made the kingdom to expand.
  5. The king used wealth from trade to reward loyal provincial rulers.
  6. The need for goods for export encouraged the kings to conquer more territories.
  7. Wealth from the trade boosted the kings’ fame/prestige.

                                                                                                                  (First 3×1= 3 marks)

KCSE History Prediction Questions and Answers

b). Describe the social organization of the Shona during the pre-colonial period (12 marks).

  1. The Shona believed in the existence of one powerful god called ‘Mwari’.
  2. They believed in ancestral spirits whom they consulted from time to time .
  3. Priests presided over religious functions such as offering sacrifices to god.
  4. The Shona elders were highly respected.
  5. Priests came from Rozwi clan.
  6. Worshipped in sacred places like shrines.
  7. They practiced polygamy.
  8. They were organized into clans.
  9. They lived in circular stone houses.
  10. They practiced exogamous marriage/marriage within the same clan was not allowed.
  11. Had medicine men who treated the sick.                                          (First 6×2= 12 marks)

21.a). Give five characteristics of direct rule in Zimbabwe (5marks).

  1. There were a large number of European settlers.
  2. White settlers developed an attitude that Zimbabwe was pre-ordained to be a white settler’s colony.
  3. The colony was administered by a commercial company (BSAC) for a long period.
  4. Europeans served in many subordinate positions/performed simple administrative duties that were handled by African employees in most of the other British colonies.
  5. Legco was dominated by settlers and they declared self-government in 1923.
  6. The Europeans acquired large tracts of African land and the Africans were forced to provide labour.
  7. The administration was very authoritative and managed by white minorities.
  8. Racial segregation was the main government policy imposed by the whites to discriminate Africans.

                                                                                                          (First 5×2= 10 marks)

b). Explain the effects of British rule in Zimbabwe (10marks).

  1. The day-to-day running of the colony was vested in the hands of the British without much reference to the African interest.
  2. The British South African Company was given too much power in the administration of the colony.
  3. It undermined African traditional economy as some Africans worked in white farms.
  4. Africans were denied freedom of movement by being confined to reserves and required to carry identity cards.
  5. African traditional rulers lost their political autonomy and served as puppets of the British/loss of independence.
  6. It led to development of transport network/infrastructure in the settler region.
  7. Establishment of white settlement subjected Africans to poverty.
  8. It led to the introduction of new crops in the region/cash crops.
  9. Africans were subjected to forced labour/to work in settler farms and mines.
  10. It undermined African culture through introduction of Christianity and western education in the region.
  11. It led to alienation of African land to white settlers resulting to displacement of Africans.
  12. Africans were subjected to heavy taxation which was collected with a lot of brutality.
  13. Loss of property.

                                                                                                                  (Any 5×2= 10 marks)


22.a). Identify five ways in which Mwalimu Julius Nnyerere promoted the development of education in Tanzania after independence (5 marks)

  1. He established the universities of Dar-es-Salaam and Sokoine.
  2. He made Kiswahili the medium of instruction.
  3. He made education to be free from primary school to universities/compulsory primary education.
  4. He popularized the philosophy of “education for self-reliance”.
  5. He introduced adult education.

                                                                                                            (First 5×1= 5 marks)

b). Outline five political changes introduced by Mobutu Sese Seko which led to the dictatorship in the democratic republic of Congo. (10 marks)

  1. He made himself the head of state and government thus centralized power in his hands.
  2. He banned all political parties in 1967 and formed the people’s revolutionary movement and made it the only legal party.
  3. He reformed the constitution and stripped parliament of its powers.
  4. Mobutu abolished the federal system of government and local assemblies.
  5. He declared himself president for life in 1970. 

                                                                                                                      (First 5×2= 10 marks)

23.a). State three objectives for the formation of Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)   (3 marks)

  1. To cooperate in creating a conducive environment for foreign/cross border/domestic investment.
  2. To cooperate in the promotion of peace/security/stability among member states.
  3. To strengthen relations between COMESA members and the rest of the world/adopt a common position in international fora.
  4. To cooperate in realizing the objectives of the African economics community.
  5. To promote a more balanced/harmonious development of its production/marketing structures.
  6. To promote joint development in all economic fields in order to raise the living standards of the people.

                                                                                                               (First 3×1= 3 marks)

b). In which ways do COMESA members benefit from the organization?              (12 marks)

  1. Member states benefit from joint services rendered by multi-national institutions in the region.
  2. Member states benefit from the improved transport and communication systems that link the various states.
  3. COMESA has promoted relations between member states which has enhanced peace and understanding in the region.
  4. The PTA bank provides trade-financing facilities which promote investment in the region.
  5. member states benefit from the large and varied agricultural market
  6. Member states benefit from the liberalized trade in the common market.
  7. Member states benefit from a wider, harmonized and more competitive market.
  8. COMESA has generated employment for many people in the region.
  9. COMESA encouraged good governance, accountability and respect for human rights.
  10. Member states are able to exploit their natural resources as each country produces the products its best suited for.
  11. Member states benefit from the reduced transport cost in the region through the COMESA traffic facilitation measures.

                                                                                                            (Any 6×2= 12 marks)

24.a). State the categories of people in Britain who are not eligible to contest for constituency seats (3 marks)

  1. Clergymen of the churches of England, Scotland and Roman Catholic church.
  2. Members of the House of Lords.
  3. Aliens/those who are not citizens/Foreigners.
  4. Holders of offices such as judges, civil servants, armed forces and police.
  5. The mentally sick/unsound mind.
  6. Those that have been declared bankrupt.
  7. People sentenced for more than one-year imprisonment.

                                                                                                            (First 3×1= 3 marks)

KCSE History Prediction Questions and Answers

b). What are the functions of the prime minister in India? (12 marks)

  1. Heads the council of ministers.
  2. He is the head of government.
  3. Advices the president on the exercise of his functions and appointment of senior officers of government.
  4. Represents India in International fora.
  5. Chairs cabinet meetings.
  6. Recommends persons for the award of civil honours and distinctions.
  7. Can dissolve the Lok Sabha with the advice of the president.
  8. Communicates to the president all decisions of the council of ministers, relating to the administration of the affairs of the union and proposals for legislation.
  9. He is answerable to the parliament about the operations of various government departments.

(Any 6×2= 12 marks)

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