1. Other than assimilation name another French administration policy in Africa.                                  ( 1 mark) QUES 14,DIST 1
  2. a) Name THREE communes in Senegal where the French system of Assimilation was successfully applied.                                            (3 marks)

      b) Explain six factors which undermined the application of the French policy of assimilation in West Africa.                                                                 (12 marks) QUES 20,DIST 1

  • State two roles of locational heads (Chef de Canton) in French colonial administration                                    (2mks)QUES 11,DIST 2
  • Identify two characteristics of direct rule in Zimbabwe        (2 Mrks )QUES 10,DIST 4
  • a. State five benefits enjoyed by the assimilated Africans in the four communes of Senegal during the  colonial period                     (5 Mrks)

                    b.             Explain five factors that undermined the application of assimilation policy by the French                   10( Mrks ) QUES 19,DIST 4

  • a)      Outline five reasons that made Fredrick Lugard use indirect rule in Northern Nigeria                  (5mks)

    b)     Explain five reasons why the policy of assimilation failed.                                       (10mks)  QUES  19,DIST 5

  • Give the main reason why the British applied the policy of direct rule in Zimbabwe.                   (1 mk) QUES 11,DIST 6
  • a)      Give three reasons why the French successfully applied the policy of assimilation

                   in the commune of Goree.                       (3mks)

      b)   Explain six social effects of the policy of Assimilation in Senegal   (12mks)QUES22,DIST 6

  • Name one country that was colonized by Britain in North Africa.                                     (1mk) QUES 8,DIST 7
  • a)      Name three communes of Senegal where the French applied assimilation policy successfully                     (3mks)

     b)    Explain the privileges enjoyed by assimilated Africans in the four Communes of Senegal.             (12mks) QUES 20,DIST 7

     11.(a) Give three reasons why the British used direct Rule to administer Zimbabwe.        (3mks)

           (b) Explain six reasons for the failure of the policy of assimilation in Senegal.             (12mks)                                   

                       QUES 23,DIST 8

12. Name the main architect of indirect rule in Africa  (1mk) QUES 8,DIST 9

           13. a)    State five reasons why the British used direct rule to administer Zimbabwe(5mks)

            b)         Explain five ways in which the application of direct rule in Zimbabwe affected

the Africans    (10mks) QUES 21,DIST 9

          14. State any two economic privileges which were enjoyed by the assimilated Africans             in the four communes of Senegal            (2mks)         QUES12,DIST 10    

        15.   a) Describe the structure of the French colonial administration in West Africa                                        (5mks)

b) Explain five effects of the use of indirect rule by the British in Northern Nigeria            (10mks)   QUES 22,DIST 10

        16 Identify any one commune in Senegal where the French applied the policy of assimilation.                                                          (1mk) QUES 11,DIST 11

         17. Give two benefits enjoyed by the residents of the four communities in Senegal.                              (2mks) QUES 10,DIST 12

          18. Point out any two reasons why Fredrick Lugard of Britain applied the policy of indirect rule in the Northern Nigeria                (2mks).QUES10,DIST 13

19. Give two similarities between the French and Britain colonial administrators.        (2mks). QUES 11,DIST 13

20. Name one area in Senegal where the policy of assimilation was successful.                          (1mk) QUES 9,DIST 14

21. State one North African countries that were colonized by Italy                                             (1 mk)QUES 10,DIST 15

22.Who introduced indirect method of administration in Northern Nigeria?                           (1 mk)QUES 11,DIST 15

23. (a) State five reasons why the British employed direct rule in Zimbabwe. (5 mks)

(b) Explain the effects of direct rule in Zimbabwe.  (10 mks) QUES 22,DIST 14

24. What was the main feature of British direct rule in Zimbabwe?  (1mk) QUES 11,DIST 17

25.Give any two similarities between the French Assimilation policy and British Indirect rule.     (2mks)QUES 12,DIST 17

26. Define indirect rule as a colonial system of administration         (1mk)  QUES 6,DIST 18

27. Name one country colonized by Portugal in West Africa during the scramble and partition of

         Africa.                                                    (1mk) QUES 12,DIST 18

28 Identify the main factor that led to the failure of the French policy of Assimilation in Senegal.               (1mk)QUES 14,DIST 18

29. State two conditions that one had to fulfill to become assimilated to French West Africa.                              (2 marks) QUES 12,DIST 19

30. Apart from Nigeria and Ghana, name other West African country which was ruled by Britain             (1 mark)QUES 14,DIST 19

 31. a) Name three systems of colonial administration used by European powers in Africa.                                (3 marks)

  • Discuss the difference between the British and French forms of administration in Africa.              (12 marks) QUES 20,DIST 9

32. (a) Why did the British use direct rule in Zimbabwe (3mks)

  • Describe the effects of British rule in Zimbabwe (12 mks)  QUES 22,DIST 20


                                            ANSWERS TO COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION

  1. Other than assimilation another French administrative policy in Africa.
    1. Association

                                                                  1 x 1 = 1 mark        QUES 14,DIST 1

  1. a) Name three communes in Senegal where the French system of assimilation was successfully applied.
    1. Rufisque
    1. Dakar
    1. St Louis
    1. Goree

                                                                                   Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

        b) Explain six factors which undermined the application of the French policy of

            assimilation in West Africa.

  • Opposition by the local people who did not want the French to interfere with their culture.
  • Traditional African rulers never wanted to lose their authority and influence over their people.
  • People who had been converted to Islam resisted the French attempts to convert to Christianity.
  • The African land tenure system was different from that of French.
  • Opposition from French traders in W. Africa who saw assimilated Africans as a threat to their commercial monopoly.
  • The French government found it expensive to implement as it required building many schools and employing many teachers.
  • It threatened the existence of the French empire
  • It was opposed by the French imperialists.
  • The vastness of the  French colonies made it difficult to supervise the implementation of the policy due to inadequate personnel.
  • French people feared they might be outnumbered in the chamber of deputies and laws would be made by representations in the colonies.
    • x 2 = 12 marks     QUES 20,DIST 1

3.State two roles of locational heads (Chef de Canton) in French colonial administration(2mrks)

  • recruit labour
  • acted as spies
  • keep records of taxpayers.           Any 2 points =2mks   QUES 11,DIST 2

4. Characteristics of direct rule in Zimbabwe

  • Excessive oppression and suppression of Africans
    • Use of decrees and orders / emergency laws
    • Led to large numbers of European settlers
    • Development systems was discriminated                                     1 x 2 = 2   QUES 10,DIST 4

5. a.           Five benefits enjoyed by assimilated African in the four communes of Senegal

  • Were granted French citizenship
    • Were employed in the French civil service
    • Enjoyed the same voting rights as the Frenchmen
    • Were treated as “African Frenchmen ”
    • Enjoyed protection rights under the French judicial system
    • Granted education opportunities like French men
    • Had similar trading rights as their French counterparts
    • Were excepted from forced labour, taxation, arbitrary arrests and other discrimination
    • Could be represented in the French chamber of deputies
    • Had same civil and political rights as their French counter parts
    • Had same local authority structures as those in France                                              1 x 5 = 5 Marks

b.   Five factors that undermined the application of assimilation policy

  • It was confined only to the four communes of Senegal
    • It was expensive to implement
    • Cultural disparity between the French and the African feared that its full implementation would make exploitation of African resources impossible
    • French traders saw it as posing unnecessary completion in trade between African and Frenchmen
    • African elected in French parliament were dissatisfied as they continued to be discriminated by their French counterparts
    • Some French men could not agree to fuse their culture with that of the Africans which was seen as backward
    • Africans who were largely Muslims could not accept to be converted to Christianity
    • There were sharp differences between the African and the French legal systems
    • Rise of African Nationalism which was opposed to the French’s cultural superiority

                                                      5 x 2 = 10 Marks     QUES 19,DIST 4

6. a)     – The existence of and elaborate local administrative system even before the coming of the

                        British

                        – Vast distances and lack of enough administrative officers.

                        – The British had known of the success of the method for they had employed it in India

                        and Uganda.

                        – Lugards determination to use the Emirs to rule under supervision of the British     residents.

                        – Poor transport network in Northern Nigeria

                        – Britain wanted to guard against resistance by the local people through using existing

                        local institutions and rulers.

                        – Lack of adequate funds.                               (any 5 x 1 = 5mks)

            b)         – It was expensive if strictly adhered to due to the privileges it provided such as education,

                        so France was unwilling to meet the cost

                        – Cultural differences between Africans and their French counterparts

                        – The African chiefs who had lost their authority over their subjects strongly opposed the

                        policy as well as the presence of the French people

                        – Politically, the policy threatened the French’s status quo i.e one time the Africans would

                        outnumber them in the French chamber of Deputies and pass laws that favoured them

                        – Resentment by the Africans due to disregard of their African laws and Islam.

                        – Fear of some Frenchmen that the assimilated Africans would turn out to be their

                        economic rivals

                        – The colonial period did not last long enough to enable the Africans change their culture

                        – The schools in West Africa were controlled by missionaries who were only interested in

                        converting Africans into Christianity

                                                (any 5 points x 2 = 10mks)  QUES 19,DIST 5

7. Give the main reason why the Bristish applied the policy of direct rule in Zimbabwe.        (1 mk)

– They wanted to control resources like minerals in Zimbabwe directly.                                          (1 x 1 = 1mk) QUES 11,DIST 6

8. a)     Give three reasons why the French successfully applied the policy of assimilation

in the community of Gore.                           (3mks)

– Africans in the commune could speak French.

– The Africans in Gore had interacted for along time with European missionaries, traders and administrators.

– Africans in Gore had been converted to Christianity.

– There was a higher population of mixed race “mullato”

– The French had been there for a long time.             (3 x 1 = 3 mks)

b)         Explain six social effects of the policy of Assimilation in Senegal            (12mks)

– Created a class of privileged Africans.

– Undermined African culture/promoted French culture.

– Undermined the spread of Islam as Africans converted to Christianity.

– Encouraged formal education in the coastal communes of Senegal.

– Enabled Africans to acquire French citizenship.

– French became the national/official language in Senegal.                                                              (2 x 6 = 12 mks)  QUES 22,DIST 6

9. Name one country that was colonized by Britain in North Africa

            –           Egypt.

            –           Sudan                  QUES 8,DIST 7

10. a)   Name three communes of senegal where the French applied assimilation

policy successfully.                             ( 3 mks)

                        –           Gorce

                        –           Rufisaue

                        –           St. Louis

                        –           Dakar

             b)        Explain the privileges enjoyed by assimilated Africans in the four

 Communes of Senegal.                                                          ( 12 mks)

                        –           They were granted French citizenship.

                        –           They could send representatives to the French chamber of duties.

                        –           They were exempted from forced labour, taxation or any other form of discrimination.

                        –           They enjoyed same civil and political rights as the French men.

                        –           They were granted similar trading rights like the Frenchmen protection.

                        –           They were entitled to the protection of their rights under the French judicial system.                        –           The inhuman slave trade was stamped out in the four communes.

                        –           They could be employed in the French civil service.

                        –           They could operate local authority structures similar to those of France.                                                                 ( any 5 x 2 = 10 mks) QUES 20,DIST 7

11.a) Reasons why the British used direct rule in Zimbabwe

            -BSAC had enough personnel to administer

            -To acquire full control of the economy and exploit the resources

            -The Zimbabweans were unco-operative e.g. Ndebele

            -The African chief in Zimbabwe refused to rule inco-operation with the British

            -The British wanted to make Zimbabwe a dominion settlement

            -The company had enough capital to administrater Zimbabwe     3×1=3mks

  b) Reasons for the failure of assimilation policy in Senegal

            -Traditional African rulers resented loosing their authority and influence

            -Muslim hated being converted to Christianity by the French

            -The French traders feared competition from the assimilated Africans

-The mission schools overemphasized reading the bible and writing at the expense of indoctrinating the Africans

            -It was expensive policy to implement and sustain

            -Culture disparity between the French and the Africans

            -The French people feared being outnumbered in the French parliament

            -Stiff opposition from the local people due to cultural differences

-The French colonies were too vast to be supervise and implement the policy effectively / inadequate personnel

            -Strong nationalism emerged in the region against the policy in West Africa

-The army officers lacked the skill and experience required in implementing the policy.                                              6×2 =12mks    QUES 23,DIST 8

History Paper 2 Topical Questions on Colonial Administration

12. Name the main architect of indirect rule in Africa.                                                    (1mk)

Sir captain Fredrick Lugard                  QUES 8,DIST 9

13.State five reasons why the British used direct rule to administer Zimbabwe                       (5mks)

i)          The Europeans and company officials were many who filled administrative positions.

            ii)         Africans were not ready to co –operate

            iii)        The British desired to control Zimbabwe’s economy to Maximise profits.

            iv)        The BSACO had enough finance to pay European administrators.

            v)         Local political institutions based on indunas had been destroyed.

            vi)        The British wanted to cut off Zimbabwe links with the Portuguese in trade.

            vii)       The British wanted to establish  Zimbabwe as a dominion settlement

            viii)      The British wanted to have complete control over African communities

            ix)        European setter’s were not ready to allow Africans natives chief weld any power

            x)         The British wanted to control the economy of the country .  5 x 1 = 5mks

b)         Explain five ways in which the application of direct rule in Zimbabwe affected

the Africans                                                                                                   (10mks)

i)          African land was alienated for white settlement /  lost land

ii)         People of Zimbabwe were oppressed and suppressed by administration – denied African movement.

iii)        The African rules lost their political autonomy and served as puppet chiefs – BSAC was given too much powers

iv)        African cultures was undermine as western education and Christianity, British legal system were introduced.

v)         The means of transport and communication were developed.

vi)        The Africans were subjected to heavy taxation

vii)       The Africans were forced to supply labour to settles and public works and mines.

viii)      The African elites were neglected leading to rise of nationalism

ix)        African traditional economy was disrupted as they worked for settlers

x)         New crops were introduced in Zimbabwe which became major crops.

              xi)      The British encouraged trade.                        5 x 2 = 10mks  QUES 21,DIST 9

14. State any two economic privileges which were enjoyed by the assimilated Africans in the four communes of Senegal                                                                   (2mks)

  1. They were exempted from forced labour
    1. They were exempted from paying taxes
    1. They were allowed to work (employed) in France

                                                                  Any 2×1 = 2marks  QUES 12,DIST 10

15. a) Describe the structure of the French colonial administration in West Africa                                                                                                                                                  (5mks)

  1. The French colonies formed the federation of French West Africa
  2. The governor general based in Dakar was in charge of the federation but was answerable to the French minister for colonies in Paris
  3. The governor was assisted by the Lieutenant in charge of constituent colonies
  4. Each colony was divided into units called cercles each headed by a commandant de cercle
  5. A cercle was further divided into small districts headed by chief de subdivision
  6. Below the  chief de subdivision were chief de cantons in charge of locations
  7. Below the chief de canton were chiefs de village in charge of sub locations

                                                                                                            Any 5×2 = 10marks

b) Explain five effects of the use of indirect rule by the British in Northern Nigeria                                                                                                                              (10mks)

  1. African chiefs became wealthier than the rest of the people because they were paid for their services
  2. It helped to preserve African cultures because the British did not interfere with the Africans way of life
  3. It led to abolition of slavery and slave trade in Northern Nigeria
  4. The British abolished the Fulani  systems of taxation and replaced it with a single tax levied in each village
  5. It led to retention of Islamic law sharia in the North making the area lag behind
  6. The British modified the previous  system of administration thus making the tradititional African rulers lose their independence
  7. Modern facilities like schools and hospitals spread in South Nigeria
  8. Emirs backed  by the British had more powers than before
  9. It led to the rise of nationalism because educated Africans were ignored in indirect rule and were not happy

                                                                      Any 5×2 = 10marks  QUES 22,DIST 10

16.  i) Goree

        ii) Dakar

        iii)St. Louis

        iv) Rufisque.                                                     (Any 1×1=1mk) QUES 11,DIST 11

17 Sent representatives to Parliament – Paris

  • Had a right to vote.
  • Enjoyed rights of French judicial system
  • Excepted from French forced labour.
  • Had trading rights.
  • Excepted from arbitrary arrest.
  • cooperated local authorities similar to those in France.
  • Retained Muslim law.
  • Allowed to serve in French Civil Service                                                                               2×1=2mks            QUES 10,DIST 12

18. Reason for indirect rule in Northern Nigeria.

              (i) To avoid initial resistance from locals.

              (ii) Its earlier success in India

              (iii) Inadequate European personnel.

               (iv) Lack of elaborate transport systems /vast distances to cover.

              (vi) Presence of strong indigenous government under the emirs.

              (vii) Inadequate capital.                                2×1=(2mrks) QUES 10,DIST 13

19. Similarities between French and British rules.

             (i) Both were oppressive through taxation and forced labour.

              (ii) Europeans held senior administrative posts in both systems while Africans                        were junior administrators.

              (iii) Both of them created the position of chiefs where non -existed before e.g. in                                     Kenya Southern Nigeria and Somali

              (iv) Both exploited economic resources of their colonies for self grain.                   2×1=(2mks   QUES 11,DIST 13

20 Name one area in Senegal where the policy of assimilation was successful.                   (1mk)

  • Dakar
  • St. Louis
  • Govee
  • Refisque

1 x 1 =1mk QUES 9,DIST 14

21. State one North African countries that were colonized by Italy (1 mk)

  • Libya

QUES 10,DIST 15

22.Who introduced indirect method of administration in Northern Nigeria? (1 mk)

  • Fredrick Lugard.                                     QUES 11,DIST 15

23. (a) State five reasons why the British employed direct rule in Zimbabwe. (5 mks)

  • Europeans were many in Zimbabwe thus field administrative posts.
    • They wanted to take full control of the economy e.g. mining and agriculture.
    • 1896 – 1897 – Shona Ndebele war eroded confidence in local administration.
    • Traditional systems of administration e.g. Indumas were destroyed during the process of conquest.
    • British wanted complete control over African communities.

(b) Explain the effects of direct rule in Zimbabwe.  (10 mks)

  • Land was alienated from Africans.
    • African traditional chiefs lost their authority.
    • Africans were subjected to heavy taxation.
    • African traditional economy was undermined.
    • African culture was undermined with the introduction of Christianity.
    • Africans were subjected to forced labor in mines.
    • Africans freedom of movement was curtailed by being confined in reserves and introduction of pass laws.
    • Racial discrimination in government economic and social matters.
    • It led to rise of African nationalism.                        QUES 22,DIST 15

24–       Africans were excluded from colonial administration

                                                                                                                      QUES 11,DIST 17

25.       –           Europeans dominated senior government positions

              –         Africans were subjected to oppressive laws

–           Mass economic exploitation of Africans

–           Puppet chiefs were appointed in decentralized societies.                                                                    (Any 2 x 1=2mks)QUES 12,DIST 17

26. Colonial administrative system which involved the use and retention of African leaders as administrators at local level                               (1×1=1mk)  QUES 6,DIST 18

27.    – Cape Verde

         – Guinea Bissau

         – Sao Tome                                                         (1×1=1mk) QUES 12,DIST 18

28. – Cultural difference between the French and Africans   (1mk)QUES 14,DIST 18

29 State two conditions that one had to fulfill to become assimilated to French West Africa (2marks)

  1. Ability to speak French
    1. Literacy in French – able to read and write
    1. Service in the French army / government.
    1. One had to be monogamous
    1. Had to be converted to Christianity. (2pts x 1 = 2marks)       QUES 12,DIST 19

30 Apart from Nigeria and Ghana, name one other West African country which was ruled by Britain (1mark)

  1. Gambia
  2. Sierra Leone                                              (1×1 = 1mark)   QUES 14,DIST 19

 31. a) Name three systems of colonial administration used by European powers in Africa.

  • Indirect rule
    • Direct rule
    • Assimilation
    • Associations                                                    (3 x 1 = 3mrks)

      b)   Discuss the differences between the British and French form of administration

  1. The British appointed traditional leaders as chiefs whereas the French had picked individualist become chiefs.
  2. The French administration used militia offices whereas the British used a mixture of amateurs and professionals.
  3. British rule was varied as both direct rules were applied. The French had a uniform policy of assimilation but only changed to association when assimilation failed.
  4. Indirect rule preserved Africans cultures while assimilation eroded them.
  5. Africans in French colonies became French citizens with full rights. The colonies remained subjects.
  6. British save the local leaders a lot of power, while the French worked to undermine chieftaincies.
  7. Laws in French colonies were legislated in France but in British colonies they were made by the respective.   
  8. British colonies were administered separately by a governor accountable in Britain. The French colonies were governed as a federation and regarded as oversea provinces or departments of France.
  9. The French colonies elected their representatives to the chamber of deputies in France while British colonies had Le.g.co and were not represented in the House of Commons.              6pts x 2 = 12mrks                   QUES 20,DIST 19

32 (a)    Why did the British use direct rule in Zimbabwe (3mks)

  • They desired to control the economy of Zimbabwe to maximize profits
  • The indigenous /local political institutions based on Induna system had been destroyed during British occupation of Zimbabwe
  • Existence of many settlers in Zimbabwe provided administration personnel
  • British South Africa company personnel were familiar with the area
  • To ensure complete control of Africans in Zimbabwe by Europeans
  • Zimbabwe traditional chiefs resisted British rule and supremacy

1 x 3 = 3mks

  (b)         Describe the effects of British rule in Zimbabwe           (12 mks)

  • It led to alienation o f Africans Land by white settlers resulting in displacement of Africans
  • African traditional rulers lost their political autonomy and served as puppets of the British/loss of independence
  • The day to day running of the colony was vested in the hands of the British without much reference to the African interests
  • Africans were subjected to heavy taxation and forced labour
  • The British South African company was given too much power in the administration of the colony
  • It undermined Africans traditional economy as some Africans worked in the white farms
  • It led to the introduction of new crops in the region
  • It undermined African culture i.e. social, political and economic organization.
  • Establishment of white settlement subjected Africans to poverty and suffering
  • Africans were denied freedom of movement
  • It led to the rise of African Nationalism

                                                      1 x 12 = 12 mks  QUES 22,DIST 20