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  1. a) Why was pan-African movement not active in Africa until 1945?     (5 marks)

b) Explain the challenges that have faced the common market of Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) since its inception.                                                                       (10 marks)QUES 21,DIST 1

       2.   Name the headquarter of the African Union (A.U)               (1mk)QUES 15,DIST 2

      3.  Explain five challenges facing the Common Market For Eastern And Southern Africa                                (COMESA)                                                      (10mks)QUES 23b,DIST 2

      4. Give two aims of the Pan Africanism                          (2 Mks )QUES 14,DIST 4

       5. Explain six challenges that the common market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)    experiences                                                                                   (12 Mks )QUES 21b,DIST 4

       6. Give two ways in which member states of the Common market for Eastern and Southern

            Africa (COMESA) benefit from the organization                  (2mks)QUES 13,DIST 5

      7.   a)         Name three leaders of Pan – Africanism of America descent           (3mks)

            b)         Explain six factors that led to the collapse of the East Africa Community    (12mks)

       QUES 20,DIST 5

    8. Identify the highest organ of the new East African community.            (1 mk)QUES 16,DIST 6

   9. Give three reasons that led to the formation of the Pan African movement.     (3mks)QUES 23b,DIST 6

  10. Name two leading Pan Africanists in West Africa.                                            (2mks)QUES 10,DIST 7

  11. State the African Union objective on research.                                      (1mk)QUES 13,DIST 7

   12. a)            Identify three main organs of organization of Africa Unity ( OAU).(3mks)

         b)            What are the objectives of the African Union. ( AU)                        (12mks)QUES 22,DIST 7

   13. Name one leading Pan-Africanist in West Africa.                                 (1mk)QUES 13,DIST 8

  14. Explain five challenges that have been encountered by the East African community since  2001                                                                                                                           (10mks)QUES 25b,DIST 8

   15. Name the main decision making institution of the East African Community of 2001                                       (1mk)QUES 17,DIST 9

   16. State the main reason why the 1945 Manchester Pan – African Congress was a landmark in African history                                                                 (1mk)QUES 13,DIST 10

17. a) Mention five members of the new East African community              (5mks)

b) Explain the achievements of the common market for East and Southern Africa (COMESA)                                                                          (10mks)QUES 24,DIST 10

      18. Identify two challenges facing the East African community since it’s rebirth in 2001.                                                                                                                                                   (2mks)QUES 15,DIST 11

      19. a) State five aims of the common market for Eastern and Southern Africa  

    (COMESA)                                                                              (5mks)

b) Describe the structure of COMESA                                        (10mks)QUES 23,DIST 11

     20. (a) List any three founders members of pan africanism in the Diaspora                             (3mks)                         

(b) Discuss the achievements of pan Africanism movement up to 1963 in the world.                                                                                                          (12mks).QUES 18,.DIST 13      21. (a) Identify the three founder presidents of east African community in 1967.                                                                                            (3mks).

(b) What factors facilitated the collapse of the east African community by 1977.                                                    (12mks)QUES 20,DIST 13

22. Name two organs of the East African Community established in 2001. (2mks)QUES 14,DIST 14

 23. (a) What made the Pan-African Congress of 1945 in Manchester unique?         (3mks)

(b)  Explain five achievements of the Pan-African Movement.    (12mks) QUES 22,DIST 14

24. What is the supreme organ of common market for East and Southern Africa? (COMESA).                       (1 mk)QUES 16,DIST 15

25.What is the main function of the East African court of justice?    (1 mk)QUES 17,DIST 15

 26. (a) Why was the Economic Community of West Africa States (ECOWAS) formed?       (5 mks)

      (b) Describe the challenges affecting the operations of the ECOWAS. (12 mks)

         QUES 24,DIST  15

27. (a) Give five aims of the organization of African unity (OAU).          (5mks)

            (b) Explain the challenges of the OAU since its inception.            (10mks)QUES 23,DIST 16

28. a)   Name three Africans who were members of Pan-Africanism            (3mks)

      b)   Discuss six ways through which COMESA has benefited its members         (12mks)                              QUES 23,DIST 17

29. a)         List three leaders  who signed the treaty leading to rebirth of the East African Community.

         (3mks)

         b)      Explain six achievements of the East African community since its rebirth.(12mks)                     QUES 22,DIST 18

30. a)   Outline three functions of the East African community                    (3 marks)

      b)   Explain six problems which the East African Community faced upto 1977     (12 marks)

         QUES23,DIST 19

31. Give one way in which the Member States of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) benefit from the organization                                                      (1mk)QUES 14,DIST 20

                                                  CO-OPERATION IN AFRICA

  1. a)  Why was Pan-African movement not active in Africa until 1945.
    1. Africans in the movement were few and were living outside Africa as exiles or students.
    1. Colonial authority could not allow Africans organise a movement.
    1. Divide and rule policy used by the Europeans made it impossible for the Africans to co-operate or unity
    1. Africans were concerned with issues effecting them directly e.g. land alienation & taxation.
    1. Countries that were independent had their own internal problems and paid little attention to international matters.
    1. Lack of funds to mobilize Africans .
    1. Lack of adequate means to communicate ideas across the continent as they were controlled by the Europeans.

                                                                        Any 5 x 1 == 5 marks

               b) Explain the challenges that have faced the common market of Eastern and

                    Southern Africa (COMESA) since its inception.

  • Lack of funds
  • Personality differences especially between Bashir of sudan and Museveni of Uganda
  • Poverty among member states
  • Poor means of transport.
  • Competition from other nations
  • Divided loyalty i.e COMESA members are also members of other organisations.
  • Civil wars among members states/political instability.
  • Boarder conflicts among members.
  • Members withdrawal at will
  • Lack of a common currency
  • Economic disparity among member state/unequal distribution of trade benefits.

                                                                                 Any 5 x 2 = 10   QUES 21,DIST 1

   2.Name the headquarter of the African Union (A.U)

  • Addis Ababa – Ethiopia.        1×1 =1mk       QUES 15,DIST 2

  3. )  Large size of membership led to different ideologies

  • Lack of permanent army and executive to implement its decision
  • Political instability has affected the performance
  • Border dispute
  • Lack of funds as members are poor
  • Personality difference among the leaders affected its performance
  • Break up of Soviet Union made the movement irrelevant
  • National interest sometimes conflict with NAM objectives
  • Membership to other organizations hence divided loyalty.                                                                   5 points x 2  = 10 mks   QUES 23b,DIST 2

4. Two aims of Pan – Africanism

  • Uniting people of African origin
    • Fighting against racial discrimination
    • Fight against colonization
    • Fight against European supremacy
    • Restore dignity of the black man
    • Eradicate neo-colonialism
    • Improve conditions of Africans in Diaspora                    1 x 2 = 2 Marks QUES 14,DIST 4

5.   Six challenges faced by COMESA countries

  • Boarder conflicts between member states
    • Personality differences between leaders
    • Lack of commitment by members because of belonging to other organizations
    • Poor means of transport between member states
    • Completion from non-members in trade
    • Some members have pulled out
    • Members produce similar goods
    • Some member states fail to comply with the organizations regulations
    • Huge foreign debts
    • Unfavourable trade terms in the external markets
    • Unemployment remains a major problem in the region
    • Low purchasing power by the people from the member states                                                                              2 x 6 = 12 Marks QUES 21b,DIST 4

6– A wider harmonized and more competitive market.

            – Creates individual productivity and competitiveness

            – Increased agricultural exploitation and natural resources

            – More harmonized monetary and banking policies

            – A more rational exploitation of natural resources

            – More efficient and reliable transport and communication infrastructure                                                       (any 2 x 1 = 2mks) QUES  13,DIST 5

7. a)     – Edward Blyden

                        – Booker T. Washington

                        – Dr. W.E.B DuBois

                        – Marcus Garvey

                        – George Padmore                                           (any 3 x 1 = 3mks)

            b)         – An unequal distribution of services and accrued benefits from the organization by the

                        member states made Tanzania and Uganda resent Kenya’s economic monopoly of the

                        organization

                        – Ideological differences as the three countries pursued different economic and political

                        policies

                        – Individual differences between leaders made it more difficult for them to hold meetings  that would promote dialogue and unity

                        – The coup d’etat which overthrew Milton Obote undermined the unity that was desired

                        for survival of the organization. Nyerere refused to recognize Amin as the President of

                        Uganda/ Political instability in Uganda undermined their unity

                        – Use of different currencies by the three states made transactions difficult

                        – The fear that more Kenyans were benefiting from the community in terms of

                        employment

                        – Hostility towards nationals from member states

                        – Financial constraints resulting from failure by member states to remit funds to meet the  organizations needs.

                        – Lack of trust in managing community resources by member countries led to unlawful

                        nationalization of the organization assets

                        – Too much power was placed on the authority of the community (3 heads of state) They

                        lacked a defined policy           (Any 6 well explained x 2 = 12mks)QUES 20,DIST 5

8. Identify the highest organ of the new East African ccrnmunity. (1 mk)

            – The assembly                                          QUES 16,DIST 6

9. a)     Give three reasons that led to the formation of the Pan African movement.     (3mks)

                        – To fight racial discrimination.

– Fight against slavery.

– Need to restore black dignity/humanity.

– Need to fight colonialism.

– Need to promote African education.

– To promote black brotherhood/unity.                      (3 x 1 = 3 mks) QUES 23a,DIST 6

10.       Name two leading Pan Africanists in West Africa.                                                                ( 2 mks)

            –           Kwame Nkurumah

            –           Leopold Sedar Senghor.                                QUES 10,DIST 7

11        State the African Union objective on research.                                                                      ( 1 mk)

            –           To promote research in all fields particularly in science and technology.  QUES 13,DIST 7

12 a)    Identify three main organs of organization of Africa Unity ( OAU).                        ( 3 mks)

                        –           The general Secretariet.

                        –           The council of ministers

                        –           The Assembly of heads of states and government.

                        –           The commission of mediation, conciliation and arbitration( Any 3 x 1 – 3 mks)

            b)         What are the objectives of the African Union. ( AU)                                    ( 12 mks)

                        –           uphold sovereignty and equality of member states.

                        –           Promote unity and solidarity of the African people.

                        –           Promote and defend issues of interests to the continent and its people.

                        –           Promote and defend issues of interests to the continent and its people.

                        –           Promotes democracy and good government in Africa.

                        –           Promote and protect human rights.

–           Promote cooperation in all fields of human activity in order to improve the living standards of Africans.

–           Encourage International cooperation with due regard to the charter of the UNO.

–           Promote research in all fields especially in science and technology in order to advanced development of the continent.

–           Promote research in all fields especially in science and technology in order to advance development of the connect.

–           Promote peace, security and stability in Africa.

–           To accelerate political social and economic intergration in Africa.              

(Any  6 x 2 =12 mks)  QUES 22,DIST 7

13 One leading pan-Africanist in W. Africa

            -Kwame Nkrumah              1×1=(1mk)     QUES 13,DIST8

14 Challenges encountered by the East African community since 2001

-Suspicion exist among members that Kenya is a dominant partner due to her advanced manufacturing and agriculture sector

-Subjecting of Kenyan goods to tariff barriers despite the signing of the treaty/ custom union

-Insecurity a long the common borders caused by banditry, cattle rustlers e.g. Kenya-Uganda border have some case severed relations

-National interest-putting more preference to their internal matters at the expense of community affairs

            -Divided loyalty-they also belong to other regional organization such as COMESA

-Members’ states produce similar goods making it difficult for them to trade with each other

            -EAC members do not have a common currency

            -Poor transport and communication networks

-Conflict over the exploitation of common natural resource e.g. use of Lake Victoria

-Opening of the region has been accompanied by trans-border smuggling of goods .                                                 5 X2 =10mks  QUES 25b,DIST 8

15 Name the main decision making institution of the East African Community of 2001          (1mk)

The council of Ministers                                 1 x 1 = 1mk   QUES 17,DIST 9

16 State the main reason why the 1945 Manchester Pan – African Congress was a landmark in African history                                                                               (1mk)

  1. It was attended by the leading African nationalists from the African continent e.g. Kamuzu, Banda of Malawi, Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya, Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Julius Nyerere of Tanzania,Dr Nnandi Azikiwe  of Nigeria hence nationalist struggle was boosted

                                                                              1×1 = 1mark  QUES 13,DIST 10

17. a) Mention five members of the new East African community               (5mks)

  1. Kenya
  2. Uganda
  3. Tanzania
  4. Burundi
  5. Rwanda                                                                          5×1 = 5marks

b) Explain the achievements of the common market for East and Southern Africa (COMESA)                                                                                              (10mks)

  1. It has led to liberalized trade
  2. It has led to a unified custom network between states
  3. It has led to improved  transport and communication network
  4. Has encouraged growth of the private sector through a  legal framework protection
  5. Provides room for greater industrial productivity
  6. Provides a large and varied agricultural market
  7. Generated employment for many people
  8. It encourages good governance, accountability and respect for human rights
  9. Members benefit from a more harmonized and widened competitive market
  10. Has led to harmonization of macro – Economic and monetary policy in the region

                                                          Any 5×2 = 5 marks  QUES 24,DIST 10

18 i) Divided loyalty / membership of other organizations.

     ii) Poor transport and communication hinders trade

    iii) Conflict over common resources e.g. Lake Victoria

    iv) Lack of a common currency hinders trade.

    v) Border insecurity /banditry /cattle rustling

   vi) Member states give priority to national issues

  vii) Perception that Kenya is the main beneficiary.                                                              (Any 2 x1 = 2mks) QUES 15,DIST 11

19. a)   i)          It helps different states to live together.

ii) The mass media keenly monitors the actions and speeches of the president.

iii) Joint defence forces ensure security for smaller states.

iv) Enables states to tackle their problems with a united front e.g. terrorism or drug     trafficking..

 v) Eases trade by way of eliminating custom duties and use of common currency.

 vi)  Enables states to benefit from the pool of resources.

vii) Enables states to work as one political limit.

  • Protects better interests of small states.                   (Any 5×1=5mks)

       b)

  • The president is limited to two terms of four years each.
  • The mass media keenly monitors the actions and speeches of the president.
  • Public opinions which reflect the wishes and feelings of the American people.
  • The senate must approve the appointment of the president.
  • Congress may refuse to approve expenditure of money on an issue.
  • Periodic elections after every two years for congress acts as a check on the president e.g. if he                       losses majority in congress.
  • The Supreme Court may declare the president to have acted unconstitutionally on an issue or decision.
  • Congress can impeach the president if he is deemed to have acted unconstitutionally.

                                                                                   (Any 5×2=10mks)QUES 23,DIST 11

History Paper 2 Topical Questions on Co-Operation In Africa

20. .  Pan Africainists in the diaspora.

              (i) Dr W.E.B. Dubois

                (ii) Booker .T. Washington.

                (iii) Marcus Garvey

            (iv) George Padmore                                                               3×1=(3mks)

  (b) Achievement of Pan Africanism

              (i) Provided common forum for Africans to speak with one voice.

             (ii) Has spread spirit of solidarity among Africans.

             (iii) Has raised Africans’ conscience and awareness of their dignity.

            (iv) Promoted research in Africa’s culture, history, music medicine, art e.tc.

             (v) supported Ethiopia against the 1935 Italian invasion by Benito Mussolini

            (iv) Has inspired and gave impetus to the formation of the AU, forming O .A. U in                              1963.

            (vi) Supported the decolonization of Africa material/ financial and military                                          assistance to nationalist movements in Africa                                                                         6×2=   (12mks)QUES 18,DIST 13

21. Founder / founding presidents of the EAC (1967)

             (i) Jomo Kenyatta (Kenya)

              (i) Milton Obote (Uganda)

             (iii) Julius Nyerere  (Tanzania)                                               3×1=(3mks)                                

 (b) Factors for the collapse of the EAC.

               (i) Ideological differences between members states (TZ communist socialist while                      Kenya and Uganda capitalists) 

              (ii) Production of similar goods and services hence saturated market.

            (iii) Claims of Kenya benefiting more than the other two partners due to her                                         industrial advantage.

              (iv) Claims of harassment of each other citizens between Kenya and Tanzania

             (v) Personality differences between Idi Amin and Julius Nyerere

            (vi) Dictatorship in Uganda and its political instability were not conducive for the                  E.A.CS survival.

              (vii) Closure of Tanzania common border with Kenya in 1977.

              (viii) Protectionism policies practised by some member state e.g. TZ did not                                            favour trade in the A.C.

              (ix) Amins expulsion of foreigners especially Asians crippled (Uganda’s)                                                economy so that it could not meet its financial commitments in the union.

               (x) General inadequate capital in the three countries / failure to remit financial                       contributions as laid down.

              (xi) Tension between Uganda and TZ over the laters’ claim that Tanzania was                                     hosting guerillas loyal  war to ousted president Milton Obote.

              (xii) Nationalization of the unions assets by member states e.g. Kenya and TZ by                     1975.

             (xiii) Fear by Kenya that uneconomical services were imposed on the union and she                                                 was expected to offset losses.                  6×2 =12mks     QUES 20,DIST 13                                                                                       

22. Name two organs of the East African Community established in 2001.             (2mks)

  • The summit
  • The council of ministers
  • Co-ordinating committee
  • Electoral committee
  • East African court of justice.
  • East Africa legislative assembly
  • The secretariat.

2 x 1 = 2mks  QUES 14,DIST 14

23(a)    What made the Pan-African Congress of 1945 in Manchester unique?                     (3mks)

  • It was mainly organized by African from Africa with exception of Dubois and Padmore.
  • Representatives of white philanthropist were absent.
  • African trade unions were represented.
  • It addressed itself to problems facing Africa.
  • It was more local and radical which demanded independence of Africans
  • It condemned capitalism
  • It expressed hope that Asia and Africa would break the chain of colonialism.

3 x 1 = 3mks

(b)  Explain five achievements of the Pan-African Movement.                                        (12mks)

  • It was a fore runner of OAU which took charge of Africa affairs.
  • It created a sense of togetherness among people of African origin.
  • It helped to promote nationalism and attainment of independence among African states.
  • The movement laid the foundation for the interest in research on Africa culture and history.
  • Africans have become more committed to Africa issues e.g. fighting apartheid regime.
  • It provided a forum for African people to discuss their common problems with one voice.
  • It was a step towards the restoration of the status and dignity of African people
  • It encouraged co-operation among African leaders and states towards decolonization.

                                            QUES 22,DIST 14

24What is the supreme organ of common market for East and Southern Africa? (COMESA). (1 mk)

  • The authority of the head of state and governments.    QUES 16,DIST 15

25.What is the main function of the East African court of justice? (1 mk)

Interpretation of the community laws and implementing it in line with the treaty

                                                                                      QUES 17,DIST 17

26(a) Why was the Economic Community of West Africa States (ECOWAS) formed? (5 mks)

  • To fasten economic cooperation.
    • To promote industrial development
    • To promote unity and solidarity among member states.
    • Promote free movement of people.
    • Promote trade by removing custom bearers
    • To develop agriculture commerce and other sectors.
    • Enhance communication/cultural matters
    • To improve the living standards of the people.

(b) Describe the challenges affecting the operations of the ECOWAS. (12 mks)

  • ECOWAS covers a wide geographical area.
    • Infrastructures are poor – in some cases non existent.
    • Divisions between francophonic and Anglophonics
    • Member countries continue to trade with other countries.
    • Political instability e.g. Liberia, Sierra Leone and Burkina faso.
    • Foreign interference.
    • National interests outways common regional issues.
    • Members of ECOWAS are also members of other organizations.
    • Different currencies of member states.
    • Huge foreign debts
    • Ideological differences
    • Boarder disputes.                                                 QUES 24,DIST 15

27        a) Five aims of the organization of African Unity – OAU

  • To promote continental unity
  • To defend African sovereignty
  • To eradicate colonialism
  • To promote international cooperation
  • To make efforts to uplift the standards of African peoples.                           Any 5×1= 5 mks

b) The challenges of OAU since its inception

  • Deep roated border disputes among members
  • Interference by major super powers in African affairs
  • Inadequate finances
  • Non-existence of a military force
  • Personal differences between African leaders
  • Neo-colonialism, some African countries continued to have a strong attachment to their former colonial masters.
  • Political instability – civil wars
  • Ideological differences between member states.
  • Some countries put their national interests first before that of OAU
  • Some member states of OAU have divided loyalty as are members of other organizations also.
  • Some African leaders violate human rights e.g. Idi Amin. Uganda, Mobutu Sese Seko.
  • Lack of continuity of OAU due to constant change of leadership.                                                                     Any 10×1 = 10 mks                     QUES 23,DIST 16

28. a)   – Kenyatta

            – Kwame nkuruma

            – Sedor senghor

            – Nandi Asikiwe

            – Kwegir Aggrey                                                                                 (Any 3 x 1=3mks)

  • – Has liberalized trade

– Has opened boarders

– Good environment for investment

– Harmonized banking

– Improved industrialization

– Promoted agriculture and food security

– Maximum utilization of resources

– Good governance and human rights

– Created employment to many                                  (Any 6 x 2=12mks) QUES 23,DIST 17

29. a)         i)    Daniel Arap Moi of Kenya

                  ii)   Benjamin Mkapa of Tanzania

                  iii)  Yoweri Museveni of Uganda                                                                         (3×1=3mks)

         b)      i)       The currencies of the three states have been made convertible to ease trade transactions

                  ii)      The launching of the East African passport to ease movement within the region

  1. They have established a legislative assembly for the East African countries
  2. Leaders have used it to discuss issues pertinent to East Africa
  3. It has extended transport and communication network
  4. It has reduced tariffs for industrial goods produced in East Africa
  5. It has promoted trade among the member states
  6. Civil society in the community is cooperating with a view to enhancing its role in different fields e.g. business council of East Africa. Law society of East Africa.
  7. It has incorporated new members Rwanda and Burundi                                                    (any 12×1=12mks)QUES 22,DIST 18

30. a)   Outline three functions of the East African community.                                                  (3marks)

  1. To promote trade among the three East African countries.
    1. To provide common services such as railways, harbours, posts and telecommunication.
    1. To provide for three trade of goods produced within East Africa.
    1. To provide a wider and more secure market for the foods produced in the re.g.ion.
    1. To facilitate free movement of people
    1. To facilitate and strengthen ties and understanding between the members states.
    1. To bring economic balance between the states.
    1. Establish similar custom tariffs and duties to non-member states.    (any 3pts x 1 = 3 marks)

      b)   Explain six problems which the East African community faced upto 1977       (12 marks)

  1. Ideological difference where Tanzania used socialistic ideology while Kenya and Uganda used mixed capitalists economy.
  2. Political upheavals in Uganda undermined the performance of the community.
  3. Failure by member countries to remit funds stalled joint ventures.
  4. Unfair distribution of services e.g.. Kenya was blamed for taking much from the community.
  5. Border disputes e.g. between Kenya and Tanzania and Kenya and Uganda strained relationships.
  6. Lack of a common currency discouraged inter-state transaction of goods.
  7. Nationalism and sovereignty of the states whereby state interests came first and regional interests were relegated to second place.
  8. Lack of political goodwill among the three leaders.
  9. Personality difference e.g.. between Julius Nyerere of Tanzania and Idi Amin of Uganda made it difficult to convene meetings.                        (any 6 pts x 2= 12 marks) QUES 23,DIST 19

31. Give one way in which the member state of the common market for

Eastern and southern Africa (COMESA) benefit from the organization

(1mk)

  • More harmonized monetary and banking policy
  • More efficient and reliable transport and communication infrastructure
  • Wider, harmonized and more competitive market
  • Greater individual productivity and competitiveness

                                                      QUES 14,DIST 20