Please Limited time Offer!

History Paper 1- Topical Questions on Establishment Of Colonial Rule In Kenya

10. Identify one reason that made Nabongo Mumia to collaborate with the British. (1 mark)

  • To consolidate his position & that of his kingdom
  • To secure military support against his enemies e.g. The Luo of Uganya.
  • To obtain material benefits from the British
  • To secure military support to expand his kingdom.
  • To gain prestige and fame by associating with the British.

                                                                    (Any 1 x 1 =1 mark)

11. State two problems that the imperial British East African company faced in administering


  • Lack of funds
  • Rivalry from the German company over control of the region
  • Hostility and attacks by the local people
  • Lack of personnel to administer the colony.
  • Lack of coordination between the Headquarters and company representatives in Kenya.
  • Lack of good means of transport and communication to facilitate the coordination of their activities
  • Lack of experienced administrators.
  • Tropical diseases unfavourable climate.                                   (Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

12.Give the main reason why the British were able to conquer Kenyan communities during the 

     19th century.

  • Military superiority of the British                                 (1 x 1 =1 mark)

13. Give two reasons why the Africans were opposed to British colonial rule.

  • Loss of independence
  • Land alienation
  • Imposition of taxes
  • Disruption of African culture
  • Disruption of coastal trade by the British
  • Introduction of the kipande system
  • Racial segretarion
  • Lack of African representation in the Leg-co
  • Low wages
  • Brutal treatment

                                             ( Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

14. Give one reason why Africans were denied equal educational opportunities with other races  during the colonial period.

  • Europeans wanted to maintain semi-skilled labour for the colony.
  • Fear of competition from educated Africans

                                                                         (Any 1 x 1 =1 mark)

15. State two terms of the Anglo-German agreement of 1880.

  • 1km coastal strip was awarded to the sultan of Zanzibar (10 miles)
  • The islands of pembe, pate, Zanzibar and Lamu and River Ruvuma were given to the Germans.
  • Witu and territory between River Umba and Ruvuma were given to the Germans.
  • The territory between river Umba and Jumba were given to the British.

                                             (Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

ANS 10,11,12,13,14,15. DIST 1.

5.State two limitations of the Anglo-German agreement of 1886    (2mks)

  • It left the western boundary (Uganda) undefined
    • It created pockets of German territories in British E. Africa.   2 points x 1mk = 2mks


6. Two factors that contributed to the Portuguese success in their conquest of Kenyan coast

  • They had superior weapons/arms
  • They had well trained soldiers
  • The rivalry/disunity among the coastal towns
  • Ruthless attacks by the Portuguese
  • Reinforcements of the Portuguese from Goa
  • Weaknesses of the Turkish/Persia navies in the Indian ocean

Any 2 x 1 = 2mks

7. Two African communities which portrayed mixed reactions to the establishment of

colonial rule in Kenya

  • Agikuyu
  • Akamba
  • The luo

2 x 1 = 2mks

8. Main reasons why the British were able to congure Kenya during the 19th century

            – Military superiority of the British

                                                                                                                                                            1 x 1 = 1mk

20. (a) Five reasons why some African communities resisted the establishment of British rule in


  • They were against the alienation of their land
  • They were opposed to the payment of taxes e.g. hut tax and poll tax
  • They were opposed to the Kipande system
  • They were opposed to lack of political representation
  • They were opposed to forced labour on European farms
  • They were opposed to the government policy of destocking
  • Imposition of unpopular leaders by the British
  • Racial discrimination
  • Some of the communities were encouraged by their religious leaders to resist
  • They wanted to protect their independence against foreign invadene
  • Those communities which were militarily superior to their neighbors believed that no other race/community could defeat them and thus resisted

Any 5 x 1 = 5mks

  (b) The results of the Agiriama resistance to the establishment of British colonial rule in Kenya

  • The Agiriama lost their independence as they become part to the British protectorate
  • The leaders of the resistance i.e. Mekatilili wa Menza and Wanje were arrested and deported to Kisii
  • They lost a lot of property like cattle and foodstuffs which were either destroyed or confiscated by British soldiers
  • They lost their land which the British used  for white settlement
  • There was loss of life due to the use of explosives/gun fire
  • They were disrupted from their trading activities as they fought against the British.
  • They  were prohibited from brewing traditional liquid which had been an important social/ a source of livelihood
  • The Kayas were destroyed by British forces thereby forcing the Agiriama to sue for peace.

Any 5 x 2 = 10mks

ANS 6,7,8,20 DIST 3

6.Two special interest groups that participated in the scramble of Kenya

  • Missionaries
    • Traders / imperialists
    • Explorers                                                                                                                           1 x 2 = 2 Marks

7.Two ways in which colonial land policies promoted settler farming / agriculture

  • Land was acquired for farming
    • Africans were available labour
    • Settlers were issued with title deeds which ensured their land ownership                       1 x 2 = 2 Marks

8.Two argument advanced by the colonial government to deny Africans academic education

  • Africans would be aware of their rights
    • Africans were assumed not to have the mental capacity to pursue academic education 1 x 2 = 2 Marks

ANS 6,7,8 DIST 4

6.         Identify one method of colonial administration applied by the British in Kenya          (2mks)

–           Direct in Kenya

            –           Indirect rule


8.         Give two reasons why Nabongo Mumia collaborated with the British                                 ( 2 mks)

            i)          He wanted  British protection in order to securely be accepted as king of the Wanga

to be paramount chief.           

            ii)         He wanted their assistance against his hostile neighbors e.g the Luo of Ugenya.

            iii)        He needed their support to expand his territory.

            iv)        He needed European goods for prestige and fame.                            (Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)   

18.       a)         What were the activities of imperial British East Africa ( IBEA CO) between

 1888 and 1895.                                                                                              ( 5 mks)

                        i)          It traded with the local communities promoted legitimate trade.

                        ii)         It established administrative posts / maintained  law and order / levying and collecting


                        iii)        It discouraged slave trading.

                        iv)        It provided information about the interior of  East Africa.

                        v)         It built the Uganda railway.

                        vi)        It secured the British sphere of influence / promoted the spread of western civilization.

                        vii)       It secured the British sphere of western civilization.

                        viii)      If suppressed African resistance against the British .

                        ix)        It pioneered the construction of roads / improved infrastructure.

ANS 8,18 DIST 7

7. Identify two communities which offered mixed reaction to the British during the scramble and partition of     Kenya.                                                    (2mks)




21. a) State five reasons why the British used indirect rule in the administration of colonial Kenya

            -Inadequate means of transport and communication

            -Lack of sufficient personnel to effectively run the colony

            -Lack of enough financial resources to be used in the administration of the colony

            -The British used the local rulers under indirect role so as to effectively recruit labour and collect taxes             as a source of revenue

            -The British personnel were not willing to move into the interior to administer

            -Lack of adequate resources in the colony worth direct rule for effective exploitation (5×1=5mks) 

b) Factors which promoted the growth of African nationalism in Kenya  between 1945 and 1963

            -Experience gained by ex-servicemen enabled them to spear head the struggle for independence

            -Acquisition of independence by India and Pakistan (1947) and Ghana (1957) inspired      African             nationalist

            -The role of trade unions

            -The Mau-Mau activities

            -Formation of UNO (1945) which advocated for granting of independence

            -Formation of political parties e.g. KANU helped to mobilize Kenyans against colonial     rule

            -The labour party in Britain was in favoured of decolonization. (5×2=10mks) well – explained

22.a) Explain the results of Wanga collaboration with the British

            -It led to colonization of western Kenya

            -Some of Wanga people were appointed into administration

            -Mumia of Wanga was made a paramount chief

-The British used the kingdom as a base in the administration of western Kenya.

            -Mumia lost his independence to the British

            -Wanga was assisted by the British to subdue their enemies

            -British helped him to expand his kingdom                                       (7×1=7mks) 

  b)  How did the Agiriama resist the British during the colonial period?

            -They objected to conscription into KAR in 1914

            -They barred young men from providing labour

            -They caused some to migrate to marginal areas (Taru desert) in order to escape tax payment

            -They disobey the British administrators

            -They denounced all appointed puppet rulers in support of the council of    elders.

            -They attacked European missionaries and administrators

            -They attacked villages of converts and loyal chiefs and headmen

            -They disrupted economic activities                                         Any (4×2 =8mks)

ANS 7,21,22 DIST 8

8.         State two terms of Anglo –Germany Agreement of 1886                                                 (2mks)

i)          The sultan of Zanzibar was given a ten -, mile coastal strip which included Islands of

Pate, Merca and Lamu.

ii)         Wiu and the  territory between River Umba and Ruvuma came under German sphere of influence  .

iii)        The British were to take the land between river Umba and Juba in the North.

            iv)        Western boundary  e.g Uganda was left open for any interested power.       2 x 1 = 2mks

9.         Identify two responsibilities granted to the Imperial British East Africa Company by the

            Royal Charter of 1888                                                                                                          (2mks)

i)          To establish political authority in British East Africa and maintain law and order

and security in the area .

  1. To develop  and regulate trade by facilitating the movement of goods  and  people between the coast and the interior.
  2. To collect taxes / institute custom duty in the area.
  3. To develop and civilize the indigenous people under the close monitoring of the Imperial Consul based in Zanzibar.                                                                               2×1 = 2mks

10.       State two problems which faced Africans in reserves during the colonial period.        (2mks)

  1. Disruption of economic activities such grazing, farming.
  2. Poverty/insecurity.
  3. Congestion / Overcrowding / Outbreak of diseases/Overgrazing /soil erosion.
  4. Restriction in movements
  5. Men abandoned their families in search of employment.                                        2×1 = 2mks

20a)     Identify three factors which facilitated the establishment of British rule in Kenya

            during the nineteenth century                                                                                             (3mks)

  1. Missionaries pacified Africans to accept colonial rule.
  2. Presence  of the trading company(IBEACO)
  3. The British had superior weapons for conquest.
  4. Collaboration of African communities with the British.
  5. The British got financial assistance from London.
  6. Construction of the Kenya- Uganda railway which speeded up the movement of troops to the interior.
  7. Signing up of treaties with Africans and the British.
  8. The British used divide and rule strategy
  9. The Africans had been weakened by Natural calamities e.g. famine /drought/locusts.
  10. Disunity among the Africans                                                                    Any 3×1 =3mks

b)         Explain six reasons for the Maasai collaboration with the British.                     (12mks)

     i)           They had been weakened by human and the cattle diseases.

ii)         Natural calamities such as drought, locust invasion.

  1. Severe famine which made them look for food from the British.
  2. The Nandi raided Maasai reduced their economic and military power.
  3. Succession disputes between Lenana and Sendayo.
  4. The Kedong massacre made the Maasai to fear fighting back as about 100 Maasai were killed.
  5. Lenana wanted to protect his position as a chief.
  6. The maasai wanted back their women & children from Kikuyu who they kept custody after the 1891 famine
  7. The Maasai wer engaged in civil wars                                                     6×2  = 12mks.

ANS 8,9,10,20 DIST 9

History Paper 1- Topical Questions on Establishment Of Colonial Rule In Kenya

  • Give one term of the Anglo-German agreement of 1890                                   (1mk)
  • German officials recognized Uganda as a British sphere of influence
  • Germany abandoned her claim over the Witu enclave in exchange for Heligoland with the British
  • The Sultan of Zanzibar retained the 16 km Coastal strip Any 1×1 = 1mark
  1. a) Give three reasons why the British used direct rule in administering most parts of Kenya                                                                                                                        (3mks)
  2. To ensure effective control over the Africans
  3. Britian desired to control the economy of Kenya to maximize profits
  4. The indigenous institutions / political institutions based on local chiefs had been destroyed during the British occupation of Kenya
  5. Most Kenyan communities had resisted British occupation of Kenya hence the British feared results
  6. Direct rule was one of the most effective ways of exercising the Berlin Conference  stipulations                                                    Any 3×1 = 3marks

b) Why did the Imperial British East Africa Company rule come to an end in 1895?                                                                                                                       (12mks)

  1. Lack of funds to undertake its tasks
  2. Rivalry from the German company for the  control of the region
  3. Hostility and attacks by the local people
  4. Lack of enough personnel to administer the colony / lack of experienced administrators
  5. Lack of proper co-ordination between the headquarters and the company representatives in Kenya
  6. Lack of good means of transport to facilitate the co-ordination of their activities
  7. Tropical diseases and unfavorable climate

ANS 8,19 DIST 10

5.         – Resistance from the local communities.                                                                              (1×1=1mk)


10.State problems which the imperial British East Africa had in administering the Kenya protectorate.

                    i)   Corruption of official of the company led to misappropriation of funds

                    ii) Lack of knowledge or experience needed to accomplish their duties

                      Lack of navigable rivers making transport slow and expensive.

                    iii) The company agencies encountered resistance from the African communities                               while carrying out their activities

                    iv)  The region though vast, lacked strategic natural resources for exploit

                    v)  There were no proper channels of communication between the head office in                            vi) Europe and offices in colony.                                                             Any 2×1=2mks

                  v) Inadequate personnel to administer the vast area one.

11.Name two Kenyan communities who offered mixed reaction to British colonization.

                    i)   The Agikuyu

                    ii)  The Luo

                    iii) The Akamba                                                                                          Any 2×1=2mks

18.(a) Three reasons why the Wanga collaborated with the British

                    i) Need for protection against their neighbours like Nandi, Bukusu and Luo of                                 Ugenya.

                    ii) Need to protect their independence and position f the king

                    iii)Need for European goods such as guns

                    iv) Nabongo wanted to use the British to expand his territory

                    v) Nabongo saw no need to resist having seen how the British dealt with resisting                           communities.

                    vi) Nabongo wanted his people to acquire western education and Christianity.                                                                                                         Any 3 one mark (3×1=3mks)

ANS 10,11,18 DIST13

5.Mention one method used to occupy Kenya by the British during the colonial period.                                                                                                                                                  (1mk)

  • Signing of treaties
  • Collaboration
  • Military expedition
  • Operational bases

1 x 1 = 1 mark

6.Give one term of the second Anglo-German Treaty (Heligoland Treaty) of 1890.         (1mk)

  • Uganda was recognized as an area within the British sphere of interest.
  • Germany abandoned her claim over Witu in exchange of the island of Heligoland.
  • The British laid claim over Kenya and the sultan’s dominions.
  • Germany acquired a strip on Lake Tanganyika and also bought the coastal strip from the sultan of Zanzibar.
  • The Heligoland completed the process of scramble and partition of East Africa.

1 x 1 = 1 mark

7.What was the duty of the colonial secretary during the colonial period?                           (1mk)

  • He was the overall co-ordinator of the colonial policies.  He was based in London.

1 x 1 = 1 mark

8.Give one reason why the British used indirect rule in Kenya.                                         (1mk)

  • Inadequate personnel
  • Insufficient funds
  • Fear of resistance by African communities

1 x 1 = 1 mark

ANS 5,6,7,8 DIST 14

3.Main methods of used by the British in the occupation of Kenya. (2 mks

  • military conquest
    • signing of treaties

2 x1 = 2mk

18.(a) Why did  Nabongo Mumia of Wanga collaborate with the British (5 mks)

  • Wanted to consolidate his position and that of his kingdom.
  • Wanted to secure military support against his enemies e.g. the Luo and Abagusii.
  • Wanted to obtain material benefit from the British.
  • Wanted to acquire military support to expand his kingdom.
  • Wanted to gain fame and prestige by associating with the British.

(5 x 1 = 5 mks)

  • What were the consequences of Maasai collaboration with the British? (10mks)
    • Maasai were accorded favours. favoured status. They were rewarded with cattle acquired from uncooperative communities.
    • The maasai were used to pacify the resisting communities e.g. the Nandis, the luo and the Bukusu.
    • Lenana was recognized as the paramount chief of the Maasai.
    • The maasai lost their land.
    • They lost their independence. (2 x 5 = 10mks)

ANS 3,18 DIST 15

10.       The maasai were shifted from laikipia and pushed to southern Ngong reserve.        1×1 = 1mk

11.       To cater for European interests such as roads, electrification and schools in different areas of the             colony.            1×1 = 1mk

20.       (a) Reasons why Nabongo mumia of the wanga collaborated with the British during the colonial period

  • To boast his personal image/prestige
  • To be made paramount chief
  • To get protection against the luo, nandi etc
  • To get modern fire arms.
  • To achieve territorial expansion.
  • Had realized his weakness as compared to the British.
  • Western civilization.         (1 x 7 = 7

(b) How wanga collaboration benefited them.

  • Mumia was made paramount chief over other communities
  • Wanga served as missionaries
  • An administrative centres was built in wanga.
  • The wanga people benefited from trade since wanga became a trade terminus.
  • The wanga acquired firearms
  • The wanga people and other abaluya developed enemity.
  • They were employed as social agents in wastern kenya.
  • His Head quarter became an administrative centre.
  • They benefited from western education.  (8 x 1 = 8mks)

ANS 10,11,20 DIST 16

6.         – To spread Christianity

            – To abolish slave trade

            – To settle surplus population from Europe

            – Social Darwinism (To civilize Africans)

            – Missionaries appealed for protection.                                                                      (2 x 1=2mks)

7.         – 1920                                                                                                                          (1 x 1=1mk)

8.         – Luhya                                                                                                                        (1 x 1=1mk)

ANS 6,7,8 DIST 17

5.      To administer territories (colonies) on behalf of the British     (1 x 1 = 1mk)

8.      i)       Fort Hall (Muranga)

         ii)      Fort Smith (Kabete)

  1. Mumias
  2. Fort Ternan                                                                       (2×1=2mks)

ANS 5,8 DIST 18

8.Give two reasons why the colonial government denied Africans in Kenya equal educational opportunities with other races.

  1. Europeans did not want competition for job from educated Africans.
  2. The colonial government wanted to produce a semi skilled labour force from Africans for the colony.
  3. Higher education enlightened Africans about European oppression.   
  4. Racial discrimination against Africa was extended to education.

        2 x 1 = 2 marks)

9.Identify the main factor which made all forms of resistance to Europeans invasion in Kenya fail.

  1. The British had superior weapons.                  

1 x 1 = 1marks

19.a)      List three communities in Kenya that resisted British invasion.

  1. Nandi
  2. Pokot
  3. Bukusu
  4. Turkana
  5. Gusii
  6. Luo
  7. Taita
  8. Somali

        (3 x 1 = 3mrks)

b) Explain the reasons why Kenyan communities were defeated by the British during the establishment of colonial rule.                                                              

  1. The communities were not united hence they were easily defeated.
  2. They had inferior weapons as compared to the superior British weapons. 
  3. The soldiers had little knowledge about the British militia techniques.
  4. Their population had been weakened by catastrophes such as  famine and  civil strikes.
  5. Their leaders lacked adequate organizational skills to mobilize the people.
  6. Some African communities collaborated.
  7. Some African communities collaborated.
  8. The soldiers were demoralized when many warriors were captured and killed.
  9. The economic base of the communities  was destroyed by the British making them weak                                       

(6pts x 2 = 12mrks) 

ANS 8,9,19 DIST 19

8          State two accomplishment of the IBEAC rule in colonial Kenya. (2mks)

            –Pacified resisting communities e.g. Nandi, Massai and Akamba

            – Laid the basis for colonial administration by establishing forts e.g. at

   Kibwezi, Machakos, smith and Dagoretti

9          Give two communities in Kenya that had mixed reaction to colonial occupation (2mks)

            – Akamba

– Agikuyu

– Luo

10        Identify two problems faced by the local Government during the colonial period (2mks)

            – Shortage of trained and experience personnel

            -Poor transport and communication

            – Lack of mineral resources leading to inadequate of funds

            -Rivalry between the settlers and the local people

            – European officials e.g DC’s had a lot of powers in the councils

17        (a)  Explain five reasons why Lenana collaborated with the British during

 the colonial period (5mks)

  • Natural calamities e.g. outbreaks of small pox, rinderpest and pneumonia affected both people and livestock
  • They feared the power of the guns used by the whites in the Kedong Massacre
  • The rise of the Nandi as a political power weakened the Maasai because they kept raiding them
  • Civil war between the two Maasai subgroups i.e the Purko led by Laibon Mbatian and the Kwavi led by Supet
  • Succession disputed between Lenana and Sendeyo after Mbatian’s death
  • Severe famine due to natural calamities made Lenana seek assistance in terms of food from the British forts and Kikuyu land.
  • Maasai wanted assistance from the British to get  back their women and children who had been left in the custody of the Agikuyu during the 1891 famine

 (1 x 5 )

(b)   What were the consequences of the Wanga collaboration with the British in  Kenya during the colonial period (10 mks)

(i)         British rule was established over western Kenya

(ii)        Mumias (Elureko) became an administrative centre for the British]

(iii)       Nabongo was declared a paramount chief

  • Wanga chiefs relatives (sons) were used to rule various parts of Western

Kenya e.g. Idakho, Maragoli

  • Nabongo Mumia was consulted by the British in the appointment of headmen and chiefs in western Kenya
  • Wanga Kingdom gained more territories e.g. samia, Busoga, Bunyala
  • Wanga lost her independence
  • Wanga gained material benefits through trade, western education and religion.

ANS 8,9,10 DIST 20.

Scroll to Top