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1. The diagram below represents the earth on its axis. Use it to answer question (a

a)         i) Name the latitude marked G                                                                                  

                        ii) What is the angle of inclination of the earth’s axis from its orbit                        

            b)         i) State two effects of the rotation of the earth                                                          

                        ii) When the local time is 2.00 p.m at longitude 45°E, what is the longitude of a place

                              whose local time is 10.30 a.m                                                                              

            c) Name two local winds experience around lake  Victoria region                                        

2.         The table below represents rainfall and temperature figure for a town in Kenya .Use it to

             answer the questions that follow:-

Temp (ºC)272828282725252425262726

a)i) calculate  the annual range  of temperature  for  the town                                                

               ii) Calculate the total annual rainfall for the town (1mk)

            b) State three characteristics of the climate experience in the town                                      

3.         a) What is a solstice                                                                                                               

            b) State three effects of the revolution of the earth                                                              

4.         (a) (i) Give two theories that explain the evolution of the solar system and the origin of the earth  

                  (ii) Identify the force that causes the earth to bulge at the equator                                        

            (b) Give two reasons that support the belief that the interior of the earth is very hot                 

5.         a) State two theories that are used to explain the origin of the earth                                    

            b) What is solar “system”?                                                                                                    

6          a). Name two planets without natural satellites in the solar system                                      

(b) (i) What is a time zone?                                                                                                   

                  (ii) Give the reason why the International Date Line is significant.                                (2mks)

            (c) State any two characteristics of Latitudes.                                                                      

7.         (a) What is the solar system                                                                                                   

            (b) Give three reasons why the interior of the earth is very hot                                           

8.         (a) The diagram below represents an eclipse. Use it to answer the following questions:

       (i) Name the type of eclipse 


(ii) Identify the parts marked Q and T                                                                                  

   (b) State three effects of the rotation of the earth                                                              

9.         a) State three reasons why the interior of the earth is known to be very hot                      

            b) Give two effects of the elliptical shape of the earth                                                        

10.       (a) (i)What is an equinoxal date?                                                                                          

                 (ii) Name two equinoxal dates                                                                                                     

                (iii) State two changes caused by the earth’s revolution around the sun                            

11.       The diagram below represents the internal structure of the earth. Use it to answer question (a.)

a)Name the  arts named u, v and x                                                                                          

            b) Describe the characteristics of       

                  i)Crust                      ii) Core


1.         a i)       i) Tropic of cancer                                                                                                   

               ii)) 66 ½ º                                                                                                                           

b i)      –     Causes day and night                                                                                     

  • Causes high and low tides
  • Causes deflection of winds and ocean currents
  • Causes time difference between longitudes
  • Causes pressure difference on the earths surface

             ii) Time difference = 1400 hrs – 1030hrs                                                                                 

                                                   = 0330 hrs

                                                   = 3½ hrs

                                                \Difference in longitude is

                                                            7/2 x a5 = 52.5

                                                            52.5 – 45

                                                            Longitude is 7.5W

            (c)  – Sea breeze                                                                                                                  

  • Land breeze
  • Anabatic
  • Katabatia

2.         a i)     – 28ºC-24ºC = 4ºC                                                                                                   

  ii)       – 1803mm                                                                                                                  

b)   – the town experiences  high temperature throughout the year (24ºC-28ºC)                  

  • the annual range of temperature is  small
  • rain fall  throughout  the year/there is no marked dry season
  • the rainfall patter has double  maxima
  • the  wettest  month is June/the  driest month are December and  January
  • the rainfall is  high i.e. 1803mm

3.         a) Solstice is when the sun’s overhead position is over the tropic of caner and Capricorn

b) – Causes seasons i.e. spring, summer, autumn & winter                                        

                – Varying lengths of day and night at different times of the year

            – Changes in the position of the midday sun at different times of the year

            – Changes in the position of the midday sun at different times of the year

4.         a i) – Passing star theory                                                                                             

       – Nubular cloud theory

             ii) Centrifugal force                                                                                                                   

             b)     – Layers of the overlying rocks exerts pressure hence the interior is hot              

– After formation of the earth the interior cooled slowly compared to the exterior, thus the

    interior still retains much of its original temperature

– Radioactivity – mineral elements with the interior react with each other thus exploding               

     to   produce heat                         

5.         a)  – Passing star/ the big bang theory                                                                            

   – Nebula cloud theory

          b)- The solar system is the group of heavenly bodies comprising the sun and the eight known planets which orbit the sun

6          .a)        – Mercury                                                                                                                  

         – Venus

          b) (i) A time zone is a group of neghbouring countries that use the same standard time   

             ii)  – On crossing this line from east to West,, a day is gained / the clock has to be              

                 adjusted backwards by 24hours                                                                                           

              – On crossing this line from West to East a day is lose/the clock has to be adjusted

               forward by 24hours.

     c)     –  They are circular.                                                                                                                      

– They decrease in length Northwards and Southwards

– They are measured North and South of the equator

– There values increase Northwards and Southwards

– They are parallel to each other

7.         a) – It is the sun and the planets orbiting around it.                                                                   

          b) – The radio activity process taking place in the interior leads to a lot of energy


            – This keeps the temperature in the interior very hot.

            – The overlying materials exert a lot of pressure to the interior resulting to higher      


            – When the earth was being formed the mantle and the core cooled at a slower rate than   

               the  crust.

            – As a result the temperature in the interior are still hot.          

8.         a i) -Solar/eclipse of the sun                                                                                            

.              ii)  – Q-moon                                                                                                                     

      – T-umbra

 b)     -it cause days and night                                                                                          

-it causes high and low tides

-it causes the deflection of winds and oceans currents

-it causes time difference between longitudes  

9.         a) – Cooled at a slower rate than the outer exposed part                                                       

      – Due to the process of radio- activity where atoms break releasing heat

                 – Weight of the overlying material that exerts pressure on the core

b)     – Causes seasons                                                                                                     

     – Varying lengths of day and night

10.      a i) It is the date when the sun is overhead at the equator at mid day                                  

                ii) 21st march√                                                                                                                

        23rd September√

          iii)       –     causes four seasons i.e. winter, summer, autumn and  spring√                          

  • causes  varying lengths of day and  night  at different  times  of the year√
  • causes  changes or  altitude  of the  mid-day  sun at different times  of  the  year√

11.      a)  – U-mohorovicic discontinuity                                                                                     

     – V-the mantle/asthenosphere

     – X-Gutenberg discontinuity

         . b i)   – it is  made  up of  solid  rocks                                                                                            

  • composed of two layers  /sial and  sima/continental crust and oceanic  crust
  • sial is rich in  silica  and a aluminum
  • sima  is  rich in  silica and magnesium
  • sima  rocks are  like plastic/more flexible
  • the top  layer of the  sima is  made of  sediments  and  volcanic lava
  • the  bottom layer of  sima is made  up of  basalt/igneous rocks
  • the  sima  is made  up of  the basaltic/igneous  rocks
  • sima is  made  up of  dense rocks /2.8-3.0 gm/cc
  • the  sial is made up of  granites/sedimentary/metamorphic  rocks
  • the  sial  rocks are rigid/brittle

           ii)   – the  core  is  composed  of two parts  i.e. inner core and outer  core                           

  • the main  mineral of the outer core  are iron and nickel
  • the main mineral of  the inner core is iron
  • the inner core  has  a  high density i.e. 16-17gm/cc  than  the  outer core  i.e. 10.5gm/cc
  • the inner core  is  made up of a  solid rock mass
  • the outer  core is molten
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