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1.         (a) Give three reasons for over-exploitation of hardwoods in Africa.                                 

            (b) State four measures taken to conserve forests in Kenya.                                                

            (c) (i)  Name two major lumbering maritime provinces in Eastern Canada.                        

                 (ii) Explain the factors that have favoured forestry in Canada.                                       

            (d) Explain three differences between softwoods in Kenya and Canada.                            

2.         (a) (i) What is agro-forestry?                                                                                               

                 (ii) State four reasons why agro-forestry is being encouraged.                                      

3.         (a) (i) Distinguish between pure and mixed forests                                                              

                 (ii) Show how natural forests differ from planted forests in Kenya                                 

          (c)  (i) State three measures that are being taken in Kenya to conserve forests                     

                (ii) Explain three factors favouring the exploitation of softwoods in Canada                 

4.         (a) Define agro forestry                                                                                                       

            (b) Outline four benefits of agro forestry                                                                             

            (c) Explain how the following factors influence growth of forests;  

                (i) Altitude                                                                                                                         

               (ii) Aspect                                                                                                                           

            (d) Explain three measures being undertaken to conserve forests in Kenya                        

            (e) Give four consequences of forest depletion in Kenya                                                     

5.         (a) (i) Distinguish between indigenous and exotic forest                                                     

                  (ii) Explain four ways in which natural forests differ from planted forests                   

            (b) Explain three factors that influence the distribution of forests in Kenya                       

            (c) State three measure that are being taken to conserve forests                                          

6.         (a) (i) What is forestry?                                                                                                        

                  (ii) Explain three factors that favour the growth of natural forests on the Kenya highlands

           (b) Explain five problems hindering the exploitation of tropical hardwood forests              

           (c) (i) Explain three measures that the government of Kenya is taking to conserve forests

                     in the country                                                                                                                

              (ii) State three factors that have led to the reduction of the area under forest in Mau forest   

7.       (a) (i) Distinguish between forestry and forest                                                                        

              (ii) Discuss the influence of the following factors on the destruction of natural forests

                a) Climate                                                                                                                           

        b) Human activities

       c) Topography                                                                                                                       

8.     (a) Explain three measures which have been taken to manage forests in Kenya                     

           (b) Give the differences between the soft wood forests in Kenya and

                 Canada, under the following headings:

                                     (i) Species                                                                                                      

                                     (ii) Problems                                                                                                  

                                      (iii) Marketing                                                                                              

      (d) Your class intends to carry out a field study on the erotic trees of the Kenya highlands:-

         (i) Name two types of tree species they are likely to observe                                                  

        (ii) Identify three methods you will use to record the data in the field                                    

9.         (a) Define the term agro-forestry                                                                                     

            (b) Name three topical hardwoods found in Kenya                                                            

            (c) Name one indigenous soft wood found in Kenya


1.         a) i) What is a river?                                                                                                 

              ii) Distinguish between a river confluence and a river tributary

                        b) Describe how a river erodes its channel by the following processes

                i) Hydraulic action                                                                                                 

                ii) Abrasion                                                                                                            

2.         a) Describe the process of a river capture                                                                 

            b)State five characteristics of a flood plain                                                               

3.         (a) Define the term river capture                                                                                           

            (b) The diagram below shows a river capture, name the features marked X, Y, Z               

4.         (a) Differentiate between accordant and discordant drainage systems                         

            (b) State three factors that facilitate formation of deltas                                                 

5.         (a) (i)Name two ways in which ice moves                                                                            

                (ii) State two factors which facilitate the movement of ice                                               

            (b) Identify two erosional features in glaciated lowlands                                                     

            (c) Describe how the following features are formed:

                (i) Outwash plain                                                                                                               

               (ii) Moraine-dammed lake                                                                                                  

          (d) Explain four ways in which a glaciated landscape is of significance to human activities

6.         (a) State four factors which may cause a waterfall to form                                                  

            (b) (i) Describe how river braids are formed                                                                         

      (ii) Name three features resulting form river rejuvenation                                             

(c) Describe how a river capture occurs                                                                                

(d) Give two reasons as to why Lake Naivasha is a fresh water lake                                   

7.  (a (i) Outline two factors that influence the development of drainage patterns. (2 marks)

 (ii)       Outline five characteristics of a river in its youthful stage.    (5 marks)

(b)        Describe the following processes of river erosion:

(i)        attrition;                                                           (2 marks)

(ii)       corrasion.                                                         (4 marks)

(c)        Explain three negative effects of rivers to the human environment.

 (d)       Your class is planning to carry out a field study of a river in its old stage.

(3 marks)

(i)         State three reasons why it would be necessary to pre-visit the area of study.

(3 marks)

8.(a)  Explain the following processes of weathering:     
   (i)        hydration;  (2 marks)  
   (ii)        oxidation;  (2 marks)  
   (iii)      frost action.  (3 marks)  
(b)  Describe how an exfoliation dome is formed.  (6 marks)  
(c)  Explain three physical factors that enhance movement of materials along a slope due to gravity.    (6 marks)
(d)  (i)         Give two processes of rapid mass movement.  (2 marks)  
   (ii)       State four indicators of occurrence of soil creep in an area.  (4 marks)  

9.         (a)        (i)         What is an ice sheet?                                                              (2mks)

                        (ii)        Give two reasons why there are no ice sheets in Kenya         (2mks)

(iii)       Explain three factors that influence the movement of the ice from the place where it has accumulated                                        (6mks)

            (b)        Describe how an arête is formed                                                        (4mks)

The diagram below shows types of moraines in a valley glacier

  • Name the type of moraines marked S, T and V      (3mks)
    • Explain four positive effects of glaciation in lowland areas.                                                                   (8mks)

10.       (a)        (i)        What is the difference between weathering and mass wasting?

(ii)       Apart from plants, give three other factors that influence the rate of   


                        (iii)       Explain two ways in which  plants cause weathering (4mks)

            (b)        (i)         List two types of mass wasting other than soil creep (2mks)

                        (ii)        Explain three factors that cause soil creep.                 (6mks)

            (c)        Explain four effects of mass wasting on the environment.     (8mks)

8.         a)         i)          Name two sources of rivers.                                                   (2mks)

ii)         The diagram below shows the three stages of the long profile of a


Give two features formed by the rivers in each of the three stages.     


98. (a) Describe plucking as a process in glacial erosion.                                                                            (4 marks)

   (b) Explain three conditions that lead to glacial deposition.                                                                      (6 marks)

   (c) The diagram below shows features resulting from glacial deposition on a lowland area.

Direction of movement of ice

  • Name the features marked X, Y and Z.                                                                                              (3 marks)
  • Describe how terminal moraine is formed.                                                                             (4 marks)

   (d) Explain four positive effects of glaciation in lowland areas.                                                                 (8 marks)

10. (a) Differentiate between river rejuvenation and river capture.                                                                (2 marks)

  (b) Give three features resulting from;

(i) river rejuvenation;                                                                                                                       (3 marks)

(ii) river capture.                                                                                                                  (3 marks)                                                                                                       

  (c) Explain the four ways through which a river transports its load.                                                (8 marks)

  (d) You are planning to carry out a field study on the lower course of a river.

   (i) Give three reasons why you would require a route map.                                           .                         (3 marks)

   (ii) State three characteristics of a river at the old stage that you are likely to observe during the field study.(3 marks)

   (iii) Give three follow-up activities you would be involved in after the field study.                        (3 marks)



1. a)   – High demand for hardwoods                                                                                           

  • Population pressure which has led to increased deforestation in creation of room for farming and settlement
  • Hardwoods take too long to mature and this doesn’t  match the rate of felling

b)         – Agro forestry programme                                                                                                           

  • Public awareness and education through mass media
  • Creation of forest reserve
  • Recycling of waste papers to make newsprint
  • Enacting law governing forest conservation
  • Forest research stations to conduct research on new tree species
  • Establishment of government tea zones at the edge of forests to act as buffer zones

c i)   – New found land                                                                                                       

  • Nova Scotia
  • Prince Edward Island
  • New Bruswick

  ii)  – The landscape is rugged hence does not favour agriculture                                        

  • High rainfall thoughout the year favours forest growth
  • Coastal location favour establishment of ports for timber exportation
  • Constant supply of H.E.P for industrial use due to many rivers  with water falls
  • Plenty/abundant water supply for processing purposes e.g. bleaching of pulp
  • Ready market in Canada and U.S.A for forest products
  • Cheap means of transport or rivers like Ottawa, Fraser e.t.c
  • Low temperatures in the highlands discourage settlement hence forestry is the main use of land

     d)    – In Canada they grow naturally while in Kenya they are planted                                         

  • In Canada they cover extensive areas while in Kenya they cover small areas
  • In Canada they exist in a wide variety while in Kenya the species are limited
  • In Canada they are indigenous while in Kenya they are mainly exotic

2.        (a) i) – This is a collective term used to cover a variety of land uses that combine tree    

                       growing,   pasture and crop production practices on the same piece of land for

                        the purpose of increasing or improving the output of the soil.          

ii)   –   Remedy to deforestation.                                                                          

  • Source of income.
    • Environmental benefits.
    • Aesthetic saving.
    • Labour saving especially for women who spend more time fetching firewoods.

3.         a i) – Pure forest is composed of trees of two or more species                                               


Natural forestPlanted forests
consists of hardwood mixed the species random occurrence with different canopiestake long time to maturemainly softwoods- pure woods Planed in rows and of same heightTake 15-30years mature


 b)       – High rainfall in Kenya highlands favours tree growth                                     

– Kenya Highlands experiences cool temperatures ideal for coniferous forests

– High market for wood products and timber encourages forestry

– Forestry areas are rugged and steep, discouraging settlement and agriculture

c i)   – Tree planting /re-a forestation                                                                                           

  • People are required to seek permits if they have to cut trees
  • Forests reserves have been ser aside to conserve indigenous forests
  • Forestry department carry out research to produce and distribute seedling
  • People are educated through mass media importance of the conservation
  • People are being encouraged to use of alternative source of energy/saving jikos

    ii)        – Presence of cool to cold climate enhances growth                                               

  • High rainfall promotes growth of trees
  • Step and rugged landscape discourages agriculture
  • High local and international market for forest products
  • Low population density in Canada provides more land for forestry

4.         a) Agro-forestry involves cultivation of both crops and trees on the same piece of land  

. b)   – Provides source of firewood and charcoal                                                                      

  • Source of income to farmers after selling tree products like fruits
  • Trees act as windbreakers
  • Trees create micro-climate within the farm
  • Some trees are of medicinal value
  • Trees leaves decomposes to form fertile soils        

c i)   – Tree growth is limited to altitudes below 3500 because beyond this level                

  • the temperatures are too low for tree growth
  • Lower level of tropical mountains have rainforests, which give way to
  • coniferous forests and then to bamboo thickets, with increase in altitude
  • In highland areas where the slope is too steep trees do not grow because the so

      is thin due to heavy erosion               

c ii)   – Windward slopes of mountains are generally wetter than the leeward slopes thus

      more fores                                                                                                                                 

  • The forest zone starts at a much lower altitude on the windward than on the
  • leeward slopes
  • In the northern Hemisphere, southwards facing slopes are warmer with
  • luxuriant forests, while North facing slopes are in the sun’s shadow, cooler and

      with less vegetation     

. d)    – People are being encouraged to plant trees and food crops in the same farms                 

  • Regions which previously were devoid of trees are being planted with trees
  • Tree farming is practiced in many parts with the aim of raising trees for future use
  • Mature trees felled are replaced immediately
  • The reduction of wastage e.g. the use of waste paper to produce newsprint
  • People are required to seek permits if they have to cut trees. This reduces the rate of tree felling
  • The forest reserves are patrolled by guards to ensure that fires are reported promptly and also ensure unlicensed people do not cut down trees
  • Forest reserves have been set aside to conserve indigenous species
  • Forestry department carries out research to produce and distribute seedlings to ensure the extension of forts
  • People are encouraged to use alternative sources of energy or energy saving jikos
  • People are educated through mass media on the importance of trees      

e)    – Desertification                                                                                                           

  • Soil erosion/ degradation
  • Extinction of some tree species
  • Loss of plants with medicinal value
  • Loss of aesthetic value
  • Decrease in wild animals
  • Decline in employment for those in forestry related areas

5.         a i) Indigenous forest are those trees which have been traditionally growing in the

                  country while exotic forest consists of tress that have been imported into the country.

         ii) –  Natural forest grows in the wild while planted forests are tended by man.

  • Planted forests are usually softwood while national forest are mainly hardwood.
  • Natural forest takes a longer time to nature as compared to planted forest.
  • In natural forest, trees are scattered while planted forest are found in rows/lines.
  • Natural forest here mixed species of tree while planted forest have pure strand in a given area.

      b)    – Temperature (100c – 350c)                                                                                                       

  • Tropical Ban forest domestic high temperature areas (210 – 350c)
  • Human activities
  • Altitude
  • Rainfall.
  • Soils

c)   – Afforestion /Reafforestion                                                                                                    

  • Legislation
  • Research.
  • Education
  • Alternative sources of energy use.

6.         a i) Is  the science of cultivation development and managing forests                       

           ii)- availability of deep fertile volcanic  soils  in the  highlands  has led  to the growth

                   of thick  Forests                                                                                                                      

 – the high reliable rainfall throughout the  year in the  highland has  promoted the growth

  of thick  forests

– their location in the low latitude region which experience high temperature has  led  to

  faster  growth  and early  maturity for  most  of the trees

– government’s efforts to  protect destruction of the natural forests and  protect  them 

  from  human settlement

          b) –  there  is  a wide variety of tree  species in a  given  are. This makes exploitation  of

               valuable  species difficult                                                                                                         

– the valuable trees are scattered not in pure  stands. this   makes exploitation difficult

 and  expensive.

– The buttress roots make the falling cumbersome

– The dense undergrowth/thick forest   any quick generation of plants hinder accessibility

– Humid  climate makes working  condition unfavourable

– The  forests form a  habitat  for dangerous could animals  which make  the exploitation


– The hot  humid conditions climate encourage pests and  disease  which are harmful to

  man and trees

– The heavy rainfall thought  the year results in muddy roads-which makes exploitation


– Inadequate capital limits the use of modern techniques in the exploitation of forests

– River transport is hindered by waterfalls and rapids. this  make transportation expensive

     c i)    –  carrying  out public campaigns  on the  value   of  trees forests  through mass media

              e.g.  Radio                                                                                                                        

– carrying out  research on suitability  of soils and the effects  of  pests  diseases on 


– Established of training institution dealing  with forestry e.g.  lodiani

– reduction of wastage in the  forestry  industry  by recycling waste  to  produce other 


– employment of  forests  guard and  officers  to  guard against destruction of  forests

– creation   of  forest measure  with  the aim  of  protecting indigenous  tree

     c ii)   –  frequent outbid of  bush forest destroying  forests                                                 

 – increasing  human population encroaching in to the forests

 – pests and diseases  destroying some species of trees

– frequent  drought experience in the country  destroying  the vegetation

– wild animals and  domestic animals  destroying vegetation causing stunted growth

7.        a i) Forest is a continuous growth of trees and under growths covering a large tract of

                 land while forestry is the science of developing and managing forests including

              cultivating  them              

            ii a) – Mainly temperature and precipitation

               – Proper growth of tree can only take place where there is heavy precipitation

                 throughout the   year.

               – Different plants require different amount of warmth e.g. in tropical regions where

              rainfall is very high, big trees are common very low temperature discourage tree


     b) – Human beings have destroyed any natural forests to create room for subsistence

             agriculture  and settlement. Deforestation has been rampant while collecting wood


          At the same time human being are conserving and maintaining trees in other area     

         c) – Forests do not grow on steep mountains where the surface is bare rock, the soils are

                thin   and temperatures are low

              – The windward slopes of high mountains like Kilimanjaro usually receive higher rainfall

            and are therefore forested. the lee  ward slopes are covered with scrub  vegetation         

8.        (a) – Research is being carried out on  soil requirements for different  species of trees 

              which enables  foresters to plant trees in suitable areas                                                      

  • Public campaigns on the importance of forests are always being conducted through mass media
  • Alternative sources of energy are increasingly being encouraged to minimize over-dependence or wood fuel e.g. sun, wind, biomass, water, oil, kerosene,  and natural gas
  • Introduction and promotion of energy saving stores to reduce the amount of wood fuel being used
  • Timber merchants and those involved in logging are being enlightened on how to improve their cutting practices through rational and selective felling and replanting to replace the ones cut.
  • Improving the infrastructure within he forested area  by improving roads and providing roads and providing machinery, saw mills, tractors and seed beds
  • Control of pests and diseases which attacks trees
  • Establish of training and research institutions which specifically deal  with forestry e.g. londiani forestry training college
  • Government has enacted laws that enable effective management of forests e.g. forest bill 2000
  • Creation of forest reserves to protect the indigenous trees  and other plant species from extinction
  • Posts for forest guards have been set up within the forest to protect against illegal tree felling      

. c)

i)species Kenya There are both exotic and indigenous  softwoods ii)problems large tracts of forests especially exotic trees are affected by pests and diseases e.g. Aphids iii)marketing most of the wood products  are sold locally but some are exported to Arabian countries, USA and Europe  Canada The main species are of coniferous type (2mks) Large tracts of  forests are  destroyed by fires and diseases(2mks) Most of the wood products have ready markets in Canada, USA, Britain and Europe

di)   –       Pines                                                                                                                                

  • Cypress
  • Eucalyptus

    ii)  –     Note taking                                                                                                                      

  • Field sketching
  • Photographing /filming

9.         a) It is the growing of trees together with crops on the same piece of land at the same

                    time Ö

 b)-  Meru oakÖ                                                                                                                              

  • Elgon teakÖ
  • MvuleÖ
  • Elgon oliveÖ
  • CamphorÖ
  • MangroveÖ   

. c)      – African pencil Ö                                                                                                               

– Cedar Ö

– Podo Ö

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