1.         a) Distinguish between homologous and  analogous  structures  in evolution.                                  b) Name one vestigial structure in mammals.                                                               

2.         a) Give  two examples of  adaptive radiation in  animals.                                                    

            b) State two disadvantages of using fossils as evidence of evolution                                   

3.         Distinguish between camouflage and mimicry.                                                                     

4.         State the role of light in photosynthesis                                                                                

5.         (a) Name the region of the gut where digestion of cellulose takes place.                             

            (b) State role of cardiac sphincter in the stomach.                                                              

6.         (a) Give two limitations of fossil records as evidence of evolution                                      

(b) State any two similarities in structure between Homo erectus and Homo Sapiens      

7.         (a) (i) What is meant by vestigial structures?                                                                        

                 (ii) Give an example of a vestigial structure in human    

8.         Distinguish between the struggle for existence and survival for the fittest as used in the theory of

            natural selection                                                                                                                     

9.         Give two factors that determine water reabsorption in the distal convulated tubule            

10.       Distinguish divergent and convergent evolution                                                                   

11.       (a) What are the advantages of natural selection                                                                   

(b) All insects are believed to have arisen from a common ancestor. However, modern insects

              differ widely in a variety of ways such as in the adaptation of their mouthparts for different

             modes of feeding. What kind of evolution is this?                                                               

12.       Explain why Lamacks theory of evolution is not accepted by Biologists today.                 

13.       a) i) What is meant by vestigal structures                                                                             

                ii) Give an example of vestigal structure in human                                                                       

            b) Explain why certain  drugs become ineffective in  curing a disease after  many years of use  

14.       (a) What is organic evolution?                                                                                   

            (b) Briefly explain the term “survival for the fittest” as used in Darwin’s theory of natural


15.       Explain why insecticides become ineffective against insects if used for several years in succession

16.       State three limitations of fossils records as an evidence of organic evolution                     

17.       State three pieces of evidence that support the theory of organic evolution                        

18.       What is meant by natural selection?                                                                                        

19.       (a) Explain why Lamarcks theory of evolution is not accepted today                                  

            (b) State two limitations of fossils records as evidence of organic evolution                       

20.       In a breeding experiment, plants with red flowers were crossed. They produced 123 plants with red flowers and 41 with white flowers:

            (a) Identify the recessive trait                                                                                                

            (b) Give a reason for your answer                                                                                         

            (c) If white flowered plants were selfed, what would be the genotype of their offspring?

     Show your    working using appropriate symbols (R, r)                                                  

            (d) What is a test cross?                                                                                                         

21.       a) What is organic evolution?                                                                                                

            b) Describe the various evidences which support the theory of organic evolution.              

22.       (a) What is meant by the term natural selection                                                                    

            (b) Describe how natural selection brings about the adaptations of a species to its environment    

            (c) Distinguish between convergent and divergent evolution                                                           

            (d) Discuss four evidences to show that evolution has taken place                                      

23.       Explain the various evidence for organic evolution                                                                

24.       (a) What is organic evolution                                                                                                

            (b) Explain why resistance to antibiotics is considered as an example of evolution            

            (c) List and explain various evidences of organic evolution                                                 

25.       Pure breed red flowered plants were cross pollinated with pure breed white flowered plants.

            The   resulting Fl offspring’s had pink flowers.

            (a) Using letter R to represent the gene for red colour and letter W to represent gene for white

                  colour of flowers. Work out the genotype of the F1 generation                          

            (b) If seeds from the Fl generation plants were planted and allowed to self pollinate. Work out                  the phenotypic ratio of the F2 generation