1.         a) Name two areas of the world with temperate grasslands.                                                 

            (b) Explain how the characteristics of the vegetation in climate B are adapted to the.

                  environmental conditions                                                                                                

2.         The diagram below shows mountain vegetation zones, use it to answer the questions that follow.

(a) (i) Name the vegetation zone marked X,Y,Z.                                                                  

                 (ii) Give four char characteristic of tropical savannah vegetations                                             

           (b) Explain how the following factors influence vegetation:                                                 

                (i) Aspect

                (ii) Human activities

            (c) Name the specific countries of the world where the following grassland vegetation types are



                 (ii) Pampas

                 (iii) Dawns                                                                                                                        

(d) Explain three factors that have led to a decline of natural grassland in Kenya              

3.         (a) (i) Define the term ‘natural vegetation’                                                                         

 (ii) State thee climatic factors influencing distribution of vegetation                                 

(b) (i) Give two zones of the temperate grasslands                                                               

(ii) State five characteristics of coniferous forests                                                                

(c) Explain four ways in which vegetation of the Nyika region of Kenya has adapted to the

      region of Kenya has experienced in the area                                                                   

           (d) Give five factors that have led to a decline of the natural grasslands in Kenya               

4.         The map below shows major vegetation zones of the world. Use it to answer the questions

            that follow:

(a)  Identify the temperate grasslands marked Y and Z                                                        

           (b) Explain four ways in which desert vegetation are adapting to the extremely harsh


5.         The map below shows the location of some vegetation regions of Africa. Use it to answer

             the questions that follow:

5.         (a)i) Name the grassland region marked L                                                               

                 ii) Describe the characteristics of the natural vegetation found in the shaded area P

b) i) Explain four ways in which the vegetation found in the area marked Q adapts to the

                  environmental conditions of the region                                                                           

c)  i) Give two reasons why the mountain top has no vegetation                                         

                 ii) State two ways in which vegetation is of significance to the physical and human


6.         (a) (i) Name two types of vegetation                                                                                     

     (ii) Give two physiographic factors influencing vegetation distribution                         

(b) The diagram below shows vegetation zones of a S. Africa mountain. Use it to answer    the question below:-

(b) (i) Name the zones a, b, c, d                                                                                            

(ii) Give one reason why there is no vegetation cover on to p of the mountain                   

(c) (i) State the names given to temperate grassland vegetation in:-

– North America                                                                                                         

– Argentina                                                                                                                 

(ii) Explain three used of Savanna vegetation                                                                      

(d) Explain four characteristics of Tropical desert vegetation                                             

7.         (a) The map below shows the grasslands of the world. Use it to answer the questions that follow:-

(i) Name the grasslands marked S, T, Y and Z.                                                                    

         (ii) State any four characteristics of temperate grasslands.                                                     

8.         (a) (i) What is meant by derived vegetation?                                                                        

                 (ii) Mention three factors that influence the vegetation of a place.                                 

            b) i)Give three  natural vegetation zones  on mount Kenya                                                   

   ii) Name three temperate grasslands found   in the world                                                    

               iii) Describe the characteristics of the hot desert vegetation                                                

 9.        a) Explain three causes of the decline of the areas under forests in Kenya                             (b) Explain four factors that limit the exploitation of tropical rain forests in Africa.     



1.         a) – Pampas of Argentina                                                                                                  

            – Veldt of S. Africa

            – Downs of Australia

            – Steppe of Asia

            – Prairies of N. America

            b) State three characteristics of temperate grasslands.                                                           

b)   – Almost airless except along water courses                                                                       

            –  Grass is tall and nutritious in most areas

            – Grass is shorter, tougher & less nutritious in drier areas

            – Grass withers in autumn

            – It sprouts in spring

      ii)              – Some trees are umbrella shaped to reduce evaporation below the stems                       

– Some plants have long roots to reach the water table below

– Some plants have thick/ fleshy/ succulent leaves to store water

– Some plants/ grass wither in absence of rainfall but have abiding to recover quickly   when rain falls

– Some plant seeds remain dormant for long periods awaiting the start of rainfall

– Some plants have thin leaves/ spiky/ waxy needle like leaves to reduce water loss

2.         a i) X-rainforest                                                                                                                   

     Y-bamboo forest

    Z-heath and moorland

        ii)   – it  consist of a mixture of tree and grass                                                                               

  • in wetter areas  the grass are tall and close to each other
  • in drive areas the grass are shorter and tufted
  • grass  dominate the vegetation
  • trees  are  shorter  and more scattered
  • trees are umbrella shaped
  • acacia trees  are a  dominant species
  • some trees i.e. bamboo have thick barks
  • river valleys  have trees and  thick bushes
  • during drought  grass withers/trees  shed their leaves                             

             b i) Areas on leeward slope of mountains have different vegetation from those on wind   

               ward slope because they received  different amount  of  rainfall√√                                  

             ii) Settlement, farming and mining interferes with original vegetation leading to growth of  

               secondary and dissertation√√   

            c i) south Africa√                                                                                                                 

            ii) Argentina√

iii) New Zealand√                                                                                                                

. d) The frequent outbreak of bush fires destroys  the  grass retarding  its  regeneration√√

the increasing human population is  encroaching  into the   grasslands replacing them  with settlement and cultivated land√√

pests such as  army worms /locust destroy the grass and the vegetation degenerations into a semi- desert type√√

wild and  domestic  animals overgraze  and cause stunted growth of grass√√           

3.         a i) -Natural vegetation is the plant cover that exists in an area without the interference

                    of external  modifying influence especially people and their animals                          

 ii)   -Temperature                                                                                                                




b i)  -The prairies (of N. America)                                                                                     

-The veid (of S Africa)

-The pampas (of Argentina)

-The downs (of Australia and New Zealand)     

              ii)  -They are conical in shape                                                                                       

-They have needle-shape leaves

-In most coniferous forests a thick carpet of mosses occur

-Forest species are generally few and large tracts of forests can consist of only one or

  two species of tree(occurs in pure stands)

-Most of the species are softwoods which mature faster

-Most species are evergreen but a few she their leaves eg fir,pine and larch.

– Trees have a widely spread shallow root  system for utilizing moisture from the top soil

  since  most of the  time subsoil is permafrosted         

       c)    -some plants have thick leaves and banks for storing water.                                              

-some plants produce seeds  which lie dormant for along time and germinates when the

 rain falls

-some plants sheds leaves  during the onset of the dry season to reduce loss of water

through  transpiration

-trees in the region have long rots to tap water from the water table below

-tress in the region are umbrella shaped to provide shade that reduces the rate of    

 evaporation  around the stem

. d)    – Frequent outbreak of bush fires destroy grass and retard its regeneration             

-frequent drought destroy the grass and so the vegetation degeneration into a semi-

 desert type.

-overgrazing of domestic and wild animals causes stunted growth of grasses

-human activities due to increased population which encroaches grasslands

-pests such as army worms and locusts destroy the grass, thus reducing the rate of


4.         a )            X –  Veldt

                     Z –  Stepper

         b) – Some plants have a short life-cycle this enables them to survive during the short

            period of  wetness.                                                                                                                                    

– Most are salt tolerant (Halophytes) to enable them survive in the saline soils of the


– Most plants have succulent leaves that store water to enable them survive the long

  drought  period.

–  Some plants have fibrous stems which they use as breathing surface.

– Most have deep roots to reach the deeper water table.

– Some have spines/thorns which protect them from browsing animals.

– Some are drought resistant & deciduous which enable them shed their leaves during    

 dry  season.

5.         a i) L is savanna (park savanna)                                                                                      

       ii) – The vegetation is tropical rainforest/ equatorial forest                                               

– The forest consist of mixed variety of tree species

– The trees shed their leaves at different times of the year/ ever green

– The trees are tall with large trunks

– The trees have broad; leaves/ drip tipped leaves

– The trees take long to mature

– The tree species are mainly hard woods

– The forest trees grow close together

– The forest has numerous lianas/ climbing plants/ epiphytes

– Some of the trees have buttress roots

– The forest has crowns that form three distinct canopies/ layers      

           b i) – Some plants have thick/ fleshy/ succulent leaves/ barks to enable them store water           

– Some have long roots to tap the ground water

– Some have no leaves/ have thin/ spiky/ waxy/ needle- like leaves to reduce transpiration

– Some plants have shiny surfaces to reflect light

– Plant seeds remain dormant awaiting the short rains

– Some plants have thick/ hard barks to reduce transpiration

– Some plants wilt in the absence of moisture that have a quick recovery ability

– Some plants have thorns to protect themselves from browsing animals

– Most plants are stunted/ dwarf like due to the harsh conditions

– Some plants are quick sprouting to take advantage of the short lived desert rays

– Some plants have underground bulbs that remain dormant awaiting short the rains     

             c i) – The temperatures are too low to support vegetation                                                    

     – The surface is mainly bare rock, so no soil has formed to support vegetation

    – Water is always  in a frozen state, i.e. snow, so it is not available to plants

           ii) – Vegetation is of aesthetic value as it adds beauty to the landscape                              

– Vegetation binds soil together using its roots. Its aerial parts reduce the impact of raindrops  on the soil. In this way, it protects the soil against erosion

– Plant remains decay to become humus. This improves the fertility of the soil

– Some plants are of medicinal value to people. Their leaves, barks or roots are extracted and  prepared into medicines, both traditional and modern

– Some trees are used in the manufacture of paper while others are used for the manufacture   of plywood, veneer or production of timber

– Some plants are eaten by people e.g. bamboo shoots

6.         a i)  – Natural  vegetation                                                                                                  

      – Derived  vegetation

      – Cultivated vegetation

             ii)-  altitude√                                                                                                            

– aspect√

– terrain and drainage

      b i)                    A-health and  moorland                                                                                                        

                   B-bamboo forest√

                   C-rain forest√

                  D-savanna grassland

 ii) -too cold  for  plants to survive covered  by  snow√                                                

              -rocky surface

 c i) prairies                                                                                                                          


ii) – Grazing the plenty tall and short grasses are used for  grazing livestock and  wild               


– Reduces  soil erosion-savanna  vegetation act  as  soil cover  hence  reduces soil


– Habitat  for  bees  and  wild animals-trees  in savanna are  habitat for  bees which   provide     honey  and  home  foe wild animals e.g. gazelles, giraffe

– Some shrubs   and  herbs  growing in the savanna  are  used as medicine

– Fuel-trees provide  wood fuel and fuel  wood for the people in the tropics

– Gross increases humus  in the  soil making  areas  suitable for cereal farming e.g.

  wheat and maize

d )-  some plants have  long roots to enable them tap water far deep the  ground√√        

– some pants  have shallow root system  which enables them to take  moisture from the

  soil layers

– some plants have  sunken  stomata  and waxy leaves  to  reduce rate of 


– some  plants have succulent stems  to  allow  them store water√√

– some plants are short lived i.e.  Complete their  cycle  within the short wet period√√

– some  plants  e.g.  tubers and  corns  remain dormant during dry spell until wet period


7.         a i) S- Steppes                                                                                                                    

      T- Pampas

     Y – Savanna

    Z – Downs

      ii ) – the vegetation consists of a continuous cover of grass, the grass is tufted           

– The grass is interspersed/mixed with bulbous/leguminous plants/shrubs

– The grass is nutritious. Grass is tall in moist area

     – The grass is short and tough in drier areas about 15-30cm in height

      – The grass is green in spring/brownish yellowish and strow like in summer/Grass

        withers in autumn and die in winter/rare grass sprouts in spring/Trees are only found

       along rivers/ rive rine trees/ trees found in hollows where rain water collects.

  – common grass varieties are gamma graze/buffalo grass

 – In drier, areas, the short grasses form bunches separated by bare soil

       – Tress found along river courses are temperate trees like popler, willo adler

8.         a i) – It is a plant cover existing naturally in a place but has been interfered with by man

               ii)                –     Altitude                                                                                                  

  • Aspect
  • Soil
  • Climate/ temperature/ rainfall
  • Man’s activities

             b) i)   – Savanna vegetation                                                                                                        

  • Rainforest
  • Bamboo forests
  • Health and moorland

             ii)   – prairies                                                                                                            

  • steppes
  • downs
  • veld

  iii)   – some have thick/fleshy/succulent  leaves /barks                                                           

  • some have long tap  roots
  • some  have no  leaves /have  thin/spiky/waxy/needle like leaves
  • some plants have  thick/hard  barks
  • some  plants have  thorns
  • some  plants  are  stunted/dwarf like
  • shrubs are common
  • some plants spout  during wet seasons (short  time)

9.         a)    – fire-often ,large  areas of  forests are destroyed  by accidental  and sometimes

                    intended  fire. such forests takes long  to recover                                                          

  • diseases   causes by pests and parasites attack  mainly  the planted  forests causing many trees  to die
  • human activity  /settlement /charcoal burning/logging have  destroyed  many  forests areas of which are transformed in to farms and  grasslands
  • over-exploitation leads  to depletion of certain tree  species such as Meru oak, camphor and Elgon teak. these trees take long  to mature
  • government policy of  degazetting  of some forests  made  people free to clear  many  forested areas
  • prolonged droughts  lead  to degeneration  of forests some of which  take long to recover

(b) Rain forest have closely set trees with these districts canopies.                          

  • This crowns and closeness of the trees form a dense shade for the lower layer which makes  arvesting cumbersome.
    • Most trees are tall, and have huge trunks. This makes them cumbersome to be harvested and most of them are heavy to be transported.

High amount of rainfall.

  • This forest lies within the equatorial climatic region where high amount of rainfall is

received throughout the year.

  • This means that harvesting of trees can not take place throughout the year because of the very dump condition in the forest and general disturbance caused too much rains.

Tree species are not found in pure stands

  • Rainforest do not have pure stand and this become a problem if one need to harvest only one species meaning moving from one part of the forest to another as one harvest.

Majority of the species are hardwood.

–           These species are hard to be cut and also heavy to be transported