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1.         (a) (i) State four factors that influence transport and communication                                  

                 (ii) State three problems facing transport and communication in Africa            

(b) The diagram below shows the Great Lakes & St Lawrence Seaway:

(i) Name the lakes marked A, B, & C            .                                                                      

                (ii) Why was the St. Lawrence Sea way constructed between the Great Lakes and the 

                      Pacific Ocean?                                                                                                             

               (iii) Identify the problems that initially existed along the seaway and how they were solved       (c)  State four advantages of the Mombasa-Nairobi pipeline.                                         

            (d) Discuss the role of transport and communication in development                                  

2.         (a) (i) What is transport?                                                                                                        

                 (ii) Name three forms of land transport commonly used in Kenya                                 

             (b) Below is a sketch map of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Sea Way.

Use it to answeR                question (i) below

(i) Name;

– The Canals marked N and Q                                                                                   

– The lakes marked R and P                                                                                      

– The port marked M                                                                                                 

                (ii) Explain four ways in which the Great lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway has contributed

                      to the economies of U.S.A and Canada                                                                       

            (c)State four ways in which communication has contributed to economic development of Kenya  

           (d) State any four problems facing air transport in Africa                                                     

3.         (a) Define the term communication                                                                                      

            (b) State two recent developments that have taken place in Kenya to improve communication

            (c)  State two problems facing telephone as a means of communication in Kenya              

4.         a) State three benefits that Kenya would derive from road linkage with the rest of East

                African countries                                                                                                               

            (b) Give two major problems experienced by users of Kenyan roads                                  

5.         (a) (i) Give two forms of land transport                                                                                

                (ii) State any four disadvantages of water transport                                                         

            (b) Explain any five ways in which transport and communication is important to the economy                      (c) Explain three attempted solution to African transport and communication problems    

             (d) (i) Define canal transport                                                                                                

                   (ii) Name the two major canals of the world                                                                 

6.         The table below shows the number shows the number of passengers that used railway

             transport in selected countries in 1966 and 1977. Use it to answer questions (a) and (b)


       (a) (i) Using a scale of 1cm to represent 20,000 million passengers, draw comparative bar graphs

                 based on the data above                                                                                                    

          (ii) State two advantages of using bar graphs in representing data                                        

       (b) Calculate the percentage increase in railway passenger transport in Canada between

           1966 and 1977                                                                                                            

       (c) Explain three factors that hinder the development of railway links among African countrie

       (d) One of the problems facing road transport is the high frequency of accidents. Explain three

            conditions of roads in Kenya that may lead to accidents                                                        

7.       (a) (i) Name three types of communication mainly used in Kenya                                        

                (ii) State two advantages of pipelines as a means of transport                                                     

            (b) (i) Whys is air transport not very commonly used in Kenya?                                         

                (ii) Explain four roles of transport and communications in the economic development of Africa

            (c)  (i) State three objectives of constructing the St. Lawrence Seaway      

                   (ii) Name two canals on the St. Lawrence Seaway                                                        

8.         Below is a sketch map of the great lakes and St. Lawrence sea way. Use it to answer

            question (a)

            (a) Name:- (i) The Lake marked P                                                                            

                             (ii) River marked Q                                                                                              

                            (iii) Canal marked R                                                                                                                            (iv) The port marked S

(b) Explain three ways in which the great Lakes and St.  Lawrence seaway has contributed

               to the  economy of Canada and United States of America (U.S.A)                                               

         (c) Explain the factors that hinder the development of river transport in Africa                     

         (d) (i) State three recent developments that have taken place in Kenya to improve communication

              (ii) Explain three problems facing telephone as a means of communication in Kenya     

9.         (a) Define the term containerization                                                                                    

            (b) State three advantages of containerization                                                                      

10.     (a) (i) Explain three economic importance of using mobile phones                                      

               ii) State four problems associated with the use of mobile phones in Kenya                    

b) Give four reasons why water transport is poorly developed in Africa                            

c) Explain three measures that have been taken to solve transport problems in Africa


1.         a i) – Demand

            – Availability of infrastructure

            – Topography/ terrain

            – Capital availability

            – Political factor

            – Historical factors

            – Climate

          ii) – Difficult terrain – This makes it difficult to develop transport and communication

                  i.e the great  rift valley, the rugged scarps inselberg and numerous rocks out crops 

             – Harsh environments – e.g. Sahara desert and many isolated others

             – The harsh desert climate associated with low population. Suvch makes it

                     uneconomical to   construct the transport and communication facilities

            – Non – navigable rivers 

This is due to

                        1. Fluctuating water levels

                        2. Presence of rock outcrops

                        3. Rugged terrain i.e. many rivers have rapids waterfalls

        (b)   i) A – L. Michigan                                                                                                                      

                  B – L. Huron

                C – L. Erie

      ii) – To provide cheap water transport for bulky commodities like coal and iron ore to

       industrial   centres around the great lakes                                                                                      

  • To shorten the route to external markets especially for wheat from Canadian prairies and manufactured goods from the Great lakes
  • To expand manufacturing industries along the entire route, provide employment and develop towns
  • Increase agricultural production and tourism
  • Open up this part of America for international trade
  • To easy strain on American railways
  • To increase HEP production along parts of the Seaway e.g. at Niagra waterfall and at dams constructed along the route

          iii) – The long sault and Lachine rapids between Ontario and Montreal hindered

                   navigation. aterfalls e.g. Niagra was preserved for HEPand tourist attraction. This

            was solved by           construction of alternative route i.e. Welland canala                                      – Shallow ports e.g. Montreal that could not handle large ships – they were dredged and


            – Problems of trans- shipment along the seaway causing delay. Seaway has been

               widened to accommodate large ships and these can now sail through the water

              way without stopping

  c)      – Reduces deterioration of Nairobi – Mombassa highway due to reduction of tankers       

-Has reduced cases of accidents especially on Nairobi – Mombasa highway

– Very fast and convenient means of transporting such highly risky products since the products  are firmly sealed in the pipe

– Less labour used after installations i.e. cuts down on labour costs

– It cuts down on occurrences of fuel spillage and pollution causes by derailment or

 accidents on trail or roads

– Different kinds of petroleum products for various industrial and domestic uses can be

   conveyed one pipeline

– Ensures constant supply of petroleum

   d)     – It has promoted international cooperation created by no distance

            – has led to expansion of trade for aircraft goods especially those with perishable goods

              to international market without delay

            -Has provided many people with employment opportunities e.g. pilots, engineers e.t.c.

            – has resulted in loss of life especially when passenger plane crashes people die in large


            – It has resulted into environmental pollution through discharge of wastes and fuel into

               the space

            – Has led increased terrorism through plane jacking

2.         a i) Transport is the movement of goods and people from one place to another               

  ii) Road, pipe land, railway                                                                                                          

        b i) N – 500 canal                                                                                                                              

           Q – New York state Barge canal.

         Lakes marked             O – Lake Michigan                             P – Lake Erie

        Port marked     M – Duluth.

            ii)    – Accessibility to raw materials which has led to extensive industrial development in

                      the area.

  • Cheap means of transport in import and exports has encouraged interval and international trade.
  • Provision of H.E.P from the dams f or both domestic and individual use.
  • Growth of port and towns like Duluth etc. have become points for various economic activities.
  • The sea way is a tourist attraction which generate income in the region.
  • Employment opportunities have been created in the transport industry thus raising the living standard of the local people.
  • The lakes and the dams are a source of water for both domestic and industrial use.
  • The two countries earn some revenue from toll charfes levied on ships that use the route

     c) – Communication enhances trade                                                                                      

  • Many people are employed in the communication sector.
  • It promotes international and domestic tour ism.
  • Governments disseminate information through the media.
  • Communication promotes international understanding which lead to increased trade thus boosting economic development.
  • – African governments do not have adequate capital for modern transport


  • Stiff competition from well established air lines in the developed countries.
  • High insurance cost of planes discourages investment in air transport.
  • Mismanagement of African national air lines incur huge losses.
  • Some regions in Africa are not served by direct flights and thus increases the cost of travelling to passengers.
  • Small/low volume of passengers and cargo makes it expensive for some airlines to operate.
  • Insecurity in some parts of Africa is also discouraging the use  of air transport.

3.         a) Communication is the exchange of information, ideas a, messages or opinions among       


        b)    –    Liberalization of airwaves/licensing of more private radio stations/TV stations.       

  • Introduction of the fiber optic cable to enhance communication via internet /e-mail fax (telefax)
  • Licensing many companies to provide cell phone services.
  • Liberalization of the press.
  • Expansion of telephone facilities.
  • Liberalization of postal services.
  • High competition from faster and more efficient electronic mail.
  • High cost of installation.
  • Vandalism of telephone equipment.
  • Mismanagement
  • Poor reception /overlapping of telephone line.

3. c)     –    High competition from faster and more efficient electronic mail.                         

  • High cost of installation.
  • Vandalism of telephone equipment.
  • Mismanagement
  • Poor reception /overlapping of telephone line.

4.         a)     – Trade would grow and develop in Kenya                                                            

– There will be more diplomatic ties with rest of East African states.

– More Kenyans will get employment in other East African countries

– Kenya would earn more revenue paid y the users form East African states

b)        –  Inadequate road signs make the drivers to cause accidents                                   

– Slippery roads lead to accidents

– pot-holed roads surface cause vehicles to breakdown

– Traffic jams, especially in urban centres cause delays

– Narrow roads/bridges makes the drivers to strain and cause accidents

– Inadequate drainage system of roads especially in towns cause accidents

5.         a i) – Road                                                                                                                           

                – Railway  

5.       a ii)          – Fluctuations/ interruptions e.g. freezing                                                                  

        – Obstacles – usually unseen

         –   Limited network

       – Incase of accident loses are certain and enormous

                   – Relatively slow

                   – Expensive – ports/ habours/ facilities

                  – May be in uneconomical areas

                  –   Contribute to water pollution        

    b)  – Influence of choice of location of economic activities – moving of raw materials/ finished


– Expands markets size – possible to move goods and transfer information

– Employment creation – reduce unemployment/ improve living standards

– Information/ movement hence tourism hence forex

– Revenue through tax – development

– Dissemination of information brings about change

            – Leads to urbanization                

. c)       – Creation of trans Africa high ways to increase connectivity                                    

– Creation of international railways to increase connectivity

– Regional economic integration to increase trade hence the need for networks

– Establishment of natural networks and transport/ communication companies to increase

  local transport/ communication

   d     i) – It is an artificial water way                                                                                            

       ii) –  Suez                                                                                                                                              

– Panama

    ii)   – Easy to construct/draw                                                                                                     

 – Easy to compare

– Easy  to read

– Give clear  visual impression

– Depict data more  accurately

6. b) (6000-4800) =   1200×100

             4800               4800


6. c)      – African countries have railways of different gauges which make it difficult for them to join

– The counties were colonized by different European powers who constructed railways to 

   transport raw  materials from  the interior  to  the  ports within their own  colonies

– Political difference /different political ideology /political stability among Africans

  countries hinder efforts to construct railway line to link them

– African counties produce similar goods hence there is limited trade between them and

  this  oes not warrant  them  to  construct  rail way lines

– Railways are expensive to construct/inadequate capital and hence expensive to construct

– Parts of Africa are unproductive so it would be uneconomical to construct railway lines

– Variation in train has hindered the development of various lines

6. d)     –  narrow  roads where heavy traffic limit ease of movement  and overtaking                      

– the  pot-holes sections of the roads  may cause  tyre burst/vehicle breakdown /may

   make  drivers who are avoiding  potholes crass vehicles

– The narrow bridges may cause vehicles to crash

– Sub-standard surface may cause vehicles to skid/overturn

– Dusty roads ay reduce visibility leading to accidents

            – 3 – muddy roads during rainy seasons may cause vehicles to collide

7.      . a i)       –   News papers and magazines                                                                         

  • Radio  and television
  • Telephone/mobile phones
  • Internet
  • Carrier service                     

               ii)      –  Provide a reliable continuous flow of the commodity being transported             

  • It is relatively cheap/inexpensive to operate
    • It is a safe mode of transporting oil, gas and  water
    • Are free from accidents/accidents are minimal
    • It does not pollute the environment unless there’s a leakage

            bi)        –     Airports are very expensive to build                                                                      

  • Buying and maintaining the aircraft is a very expensive venture
  • In case  of accidents there are usually few survivors and the losses are very high
  • It is very expensive to travel by air
  • The transport of bulky goods on planes tedious is and expensive
  • The government requires a lot of lend to put up airports
  • The cost of insuring plane is very  high
  • Running airlines requires skills and personnel

           ii) – Creation of employment opportunities as they are industries. This leads to raising the

                  standard  of living of the people.                                                                              

  • Promotes international and domestic tourism hence earns foreign exchange to the counties concerned
  • Expansion of new trade areas ad markets hence boosts industrial, commercial and agricultural activities hence development
  • Leads to increased mobility of labour thus reducing cases of labour shortages in industries and other sectors
  • It has promoted international understanding as people are able to interact and learn about each other
  • It generates income for the government and the people of the country. The income earned boosts the economic development of the country
  • Growth and development of different settlements is influenced by the availability of transport networks. As town  develop other facilities expand  hence economic development  

            c i) – To regulate the difference water levels along the sea way through dredging           

  • To smoothen the river channels by removing the existing rock out crops, rapids and small
  • To regulate the flow of st. Lawrence River through the construction of dams and locks
  • To promote trade and industrialization in the two countries
  • To remove the silt that was brought about by depositing between lakes Erre and Huron

            ii) –    Soo canals                                                                                                               

  • Welland canal
  • Trent canal
  • New York state barge canal   

8.         a i) (i) Lake marked P – L. Erie                                                                                         

      ii) River marked Q – Deroit river.                                                                               

      iii) Canal marked R – Soo Canal                                                                               

iv) Part marked S – Dulult.                                                                                                

    b)    – Provides easy means of transport for both imports and exports, thus encouraging

              internal and    external trade.                                                                                                     

– It has led to growth of parts and towns along its course.

– Due to accessibility top raw materials, there has been industrial development in the area.

– The dams along the route provide hydro-electric power for industrial and domestic use.

– The sea way is a tourist attraction which generates income in the region.

– The sea way has created employment opportunities in the transport and industrial

   sector   raising the standards of living of the people in the area.

–  Tariffs charged earns the country incomes.               

    c)    – Most rivers in Africa pass through different climatic regions with alternating wet and dry                                                                                                                                                                 

               seasons. This makes the volume of water fluctuate from season to season making it

               difficult   to use the rivers.                                                                                                           

– Many rivers in Africa have rapids and water falls which hinder the movements of vessels.

– Some rivers in Africa have floating vegetation that makes if difficult for vessels to move

   through them.

– Many rivers in Africa are either short, too shallow or too swift making navigation on

  them   difficult.

– Rivers are affected by siltation at their mouths and along their courses. This reduces its

  depth  required for the vessels to move.

– African countries have insufficient capital to use in the development of water ways,

   ports and   for purchasing vessels.

– African countries have inadequate technology. This hinders the process of developing

   river   transport.

– Some rivers in Africa flow across different countries. This calls for negotiation between

  countries concerned. This hinders the development of river transport.

– Most of the rivers pass through unproductive areas making it uneconomical to develop

    d i) – Liberalization of airwaves/licensing of more private radio stations (T.V. stations).            

            – Introduction of E- mail /internet/ Fax. e.t.c

            – Introduction of mobile phones/cell phones/pagers.

            – Expansion of telecommunication facilities to new areas.

            – Liberalization of postal services.

 ii) -Development of other faster and more efficient means of communication e.g. electronic

        mail  has  led to reduces use of telephones.                                                                                

– High costs of installation and maintenance of telephone lines limit the number of the


– Vandalism of the telephone equipment renders most of the telephone services

 unavailable to  would be users.

– Mismanagement in the organization that provides telephone services has made it

 difficult to   expand the services to many areas of the country.

– Poor reception/overlapping of the telephone lines limit the use of  the facility/description

 by   natural hazards.

– Lack of modernization of telephone in some areas causes delay and discourages the

 use of  telephones.

9.         (a) Is the parking of goods in large standardized box – like structure which once filled

                 in a factory /exporter can be transported                                                                             

b)     –  Saves space in ships as their dimension is more or less uniform.                            

– It speeds up the process of handling goods hence saves time.

– It is relatively cheap as it requires little labour.\reduce loss of goods as they are sealed

  at the  exporter premises and delivered to the importer without the seal being broken.

– Reduces loss of goods through breakages and spoilage.

– Checking of goods is fairly easy.

10 .    ( a) (i)  – Facilitates faster business transactions due to fast means of transport hence

                 increasing   volume of trade                                                                                                            

  • Through M- Pesa and M- Kesho it has facilitated money transfer for business hence increasing trade transactions and investment
  • It has created employment which improves the living standards of the people
  • The company pays taxes which are used to improve other sectors of the economy

         ii)    – Facilitates theft cases/ aids stealing                                                                       

  • It is expensive to acquire the device and to maintain it
  • Health associated risks e.g. hearing impairment and cancer
  • Can easily be lost
  • Lack of network coverage in some areas
  • Noise pollution over ringing

b)      – Most rivers are seasonal                                                                                       

  • Many major rivers are unnavigable due to presence of water weeds, cataracts and water falls
  • Meanders on some rivers make the distance longer than land routes
  • Many rivers flow through empty or inhospitable lands with little economic value
  • Siltation especially near the river mouth makes the channels shallow

c )   – Construction of super high ways where by each country is responsible for        

        construction of the stretch within her national boundaries to improve linkage

              of countries

      – Establishment of regional trade blocs that spearhead the development and

          management   of transport network among member states ensures good transport

     network in Africa

  • Negotiations among leaders of various African nations to provide security to avoid high way  robbery