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  • i) What is support?
  • to support is to carry part of the weight/mass of an organism

ii) What is locomotion?

  • progressive change in the position of an organism

iii) State the importance of support systems in living organisms

  • they provide a framework for the body of organisms and help to determine their shape
  • provide land animals with means for support to their weights against gravity
  • organs are attached to the skeleton for support and stability to avoid entanglement and crushing each other
  • they protect very important and delicate organs whether inside or outside the body e.g. eyes, heart
  • in large plants the rigid trunks of trees support the greater mass of leaves and fruits

iv) State the importance of locomotion in animals

  • in search of food
  • search for mates
  • escaping predators

b) i) Name the tissues in higher plants that provide mechanical support

  • sclerenchyma
  • collenchyma (not lignified)
  • xylem/tracheids and vessels

ii) State the importance of support in plants

  • exposing the surface area of leaf to sunlight for photosynthesis
  • ensure flowers are exposed to pollination agents
  • expose fruits and seeds to agents of dispersal
  • to resist breakages due to their own weight and that of other organisms
  • for proper transport and translocation of materials

iii) Name the types of plant stems

  • herbaceous e.g. shrubs
  • woody e.g. trees
  • weak stems in creepers, twining plants and plants bearing tendrils

iv) Name the tissues in plants that are strengthened with lignin

  • sclerenchyma
  • xylem vessels/tracheids/xylem

v) What makes young herbaceous plants remain upright?

  • turgidity
  • presence of collenchyma

vi) State the ways by which plants compensate for lack of ability to move from one place to another

  • ability to pollinate
  • response to nastic and tropic movement
  • ability to exploit localized nutrients
  • ability to disperse seed or fruit propagation

c) i) Explain the ways in which erect posture is maintained in a weak herbaceous stem

– This is the function of turgidity and presence of collencyma

Cells take in water and become turgid

ii) Explain how support in plants is achieved

  • Turgor pressure due to absorption of water keeps cells firm hence hold herbaceous plants upright
  • collenchyma and clerenchyma tissues are closely packed in stem and roots to provide support
  • inelastic cuticle on epidermis is covered by a waxy layer hence keeping shape of plant and setting inward pressure against turgid cells and this causes a force to hold plant upright
  • xylem vessels and tracheids are lignified to provide support to stems, roots and leaves
  • climbing plants obtain mechanical support from other plants and objects
  • they have climbing structures like tendrils which hold on to other objects

d) i) Give the reasons why support is necessary in animals

  • for attachment of muscles
  • For attachment of other body organs
  • to protect delicate body organs
  • to maintain body shape/form
  • to enable movement/locomotion

ii) Why is movement necessary in animals?

  • enables animals to search for food
  • enables animals to search for shelter
  • enables animals to escape predators/harmful conditions
  • enables animals to search for water
  • enables animals to search for mates
  • enables animals to search for breeding sites

e) i) Name the organ used for support by animals

– Skeleton

ii) Name the different types of skeletons in animals, giving an example of an animal for each type of skeleton named

  • exoskeleton e.g. arthropoda (crab, insect)
  • endoskeleton e.g. chordata (cat, fish)

iii) State the difference between exoskeleton and endoskeleton

  • endoskeleton is a rigid framework covered by body tissues of an animal
  • exoskeleton is a rigid framework found on the surface of an animal

iv) State the advantages of having an exoskeleton

  • supports/protects delicate inner parts
  • water proof/prevents drying up of body
  • provided surface for muscle attachment

v) Explain the importance of having an endoskeleton

  • support the body
  • give body its shape
  • protect delicate organs e.g. skull, brain, ribs
  • used in locomotion e.g. bones serve as levers
  • red blood cells are formed in bone marrow
  • minerals are stored in bones e.g. calcium and phosphorus

f) i) Explain how a fish is adapted to living in water

  • streamlined body for easy movement in water
  • swim bladder controls depth of swimming
  • fins for movement, balance, direction and stability
  • gills for gaseous exchange in water
  • presence of lateral line to sense vibrations
  • scales provide protection
  • colour which offers camouflage against predators

ii) Explain how a finned fish is adapted to locomotion in water

  • streamlined body to reduce resistance/friction )to swim smoothly)
  • the vertebral column consists of a series of vertebrae held together loosely so that it is flexible
  • myotomes/muscles associated with vertebral column produce movement
  • the sideways and backwards thrust of the tail and body against water results in resistance of water pushing the fish sideways and forwards in a direction opposed to thrust
  • heat not flexible so as to maintain forward thrust
  • presence of fins help in propulsion/balance/paired fins (pectoral and pelvic) for controlling pitch and slow down movement/unpaired fins (dorsal, ventral, anal) for yawing and rolling (caudal) for swimming/propulsion and steering/change of direction
  • presence of swim bladder to make fish buoyant
  • scales tip towards the  back to provide smooth surface
  • body covered with mucus to reduce friction

flattened surface for easy flo

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