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History- Topical Questions on The Peoples Of Kenya Upto The 19TH Century

1.Identify two sources of information which historians use to write the history of Kenya.

(2 marks)

  • Written sources(accept examples of written sources)
    • Archaeology/palaeontology
    • Genetics/Botany/Zoology/Biology
    • Linguistics
    • Oral traditions
    • Anthropology
    • Geology
    • Rock painting/sculpture/engravings

                                                                              Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks

  1. Name the remaining southern cushitic speaker in Kenya. (1 mark)
  • Dahallo/sanye                                               1 X 1 = 1 mark
  1. Name two communities in Kenya that belong to the Coastal Bantus. (2 marks)
    1. Mijikenda
    1. Pokomo
    1. Waswahili
    1. Taita

(Any example of Mijikenda group award  1 mk)          any 2 x 1 = 2 marks

  1. State two ways in which the Agikuyu and Maasai interacted during the pre-colonial period.

(2 marks)

  • Through trade
    • Through intermarriages
    • Warfare
    • Raids

19. a) Why did the Bantu migrate from the coastal settlement at Shungwaya in the 16th Century?.

  • Invasion of the settlement by the incoming cushites/oromo invasion.
  • Internal conflicts
  • Population increase
  • Outbreak of diseases/epidemics/natural calamities
  • Search for land for settlement
  • Search for pasture and water for their animals

                                                       Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks

      b) Describe the political organisation of the Abaluhyia during the pre-colonial period.

  • Several families with common ancestral formed the clan
  • A clan occupied a village (Olukongo) and its neighbourhood each clan was under a village elder.
  • They had a council of elders known as ‘Abanego’ which settled disputes, distributed land and was the final court of appeal.
  • The age group and age-set were known by different names i.e Kikhula, Olubaka or Oruse which became warriors to defend their land.
  • Religious leaders also played political roles & also served in the council of elders.
  • By the end of the 19th century other Abaluhia sub-groups began having vassal chiefs (Abami) who claimed their authority from the Nabongo of the wanga.

                                                                      Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks

ANS 1,2,3,4 and 19, DISTRICT 1

1. Give two demerits of using archaeology as a source of information on history and Government.

  • The method of dating events/artifacts is not always accurate
  • Excavation work is cumbersome/involving
  • Some fossils/artifact are fragile/break easily hence information may be distorted
  • Its expensive to buy equipments, like labour to excavate and analyse artifacts
  • Its time consuming during excavation
  • Difficult to locate archaeological sites
  • Impossible to attach particular culture to a certain group of people

Any 2 x 1 = 2mks

2. Name one group that belong to the Southern Cushites

            – Boni, Dahallo, Sanye

                                                                                                                                                            1 x 1 = 1mk

4. Two functions of the Orkoiyot among the Nandi

  • He foretold future events/seer
  • He presided over religious functions/Blessed the warriors
  • He advised the council of elders
  • He was a medicineman
  • He was a rainmaker

Any 2 x 1 = 2mks

18. One main category of Government expenditure

  • Recurrent expenditure
  • Capital expenditure
  • Servicing expenditure

1 x 1 = 1mk

ANS 1,2,4 and 18 DISTRICT

1. Give two demerits of using archaeology as a source of information on history and Government.

  • The method of dating events/artifacts is not always accurate
  • Excavation work is cumbersome/involving
  • Some fossils/artifact are fragile/break easily hence information may be distorted
  • Its expensive to buy equipments, like labour to excavate and analyse artifacts
  • Its time consuming during excavation
  • Difficult to locate archaeological sites
  • Impossible to attach particular culture to a certain group of people

Any 2 x 1 = 2mks

2. Name one group that belong to the Southern Cushites

            – Boni, Dahallo, Sanye

                                                                                                                                                            1 x 1 = 1mk

3. State the main political feature that was common among all Bantu speakers in Kenya

            – Ruled by council of Elders

                                                                                                                                                            1 x 1 = 1mk

19 (a) Give five results of the migration and settlement of the Agikuyu in Kenya during the

pre – colonial period

  • It led to intermarriage with their neighbours e.g. Akamba and Maasai
  • It led to expansion of trade
  • It led to displacement of some communities e.g. Okiek
  • It led to conflicts over resources i.e. land and cattle
  • It led to assimilation of some communities they encountered e.g. the Athi and Gumba
  • It led to enrichment of languages
  • It led to cultural interaction i.e. borrowing of dressing, circumcision and other cultural practical

Any 5 x 1 = 5mks

 (b) Describe the social organization of the Nandi during the pre-colonial period

  • The basic social unit was the family
  • Family members of the same paternal lineage formed a clan
  • Members of the same clan were prohibited from marrying because they were related by blood
  • They practiced circumcision for both boys and girls when they reached puberty
  • During the initiation boys and girls were given informed education by elders about the communities values and traditions.
  • After initiations the boys were admitted into one of the cyclical age-set e.t.c
  • They held various ceremonies to mark different social events i.e. birth, marriage e.t.c.
  • The Nandi worshiped a supreme God (Asis)
  • They believed in ancestral spirits whom they honoured through libations
  • They offered sacrifices to God in times of blessing or appease him in times of misfortunes
  • The Nandi had important religious leaders such as diviners, rainmakers e.t.c
  • They had a famous religious leader known Orkoiyot.

Any 5 x 2 = 10mks

ANS 1,2,3 and 19, DISTRICT 3

  1. Two unwritten sources of Kenya History
    1. Archaeology / palaeontology
    1. Oral traditions
    1. Linguistics
    1. Anthropology
    1. Genetics
    1. Electronics sources                                                                                                           1 x 2 = 2 Marks
  2. Two groups of people that form the Coastal Bantu
    1. Mijikenda
    1. Pokomo
    1. Taita
    1. Agriama
  3. One fuction of the age set system among the Abagusii
    1. Acted as a military wing for defending the community                                                   1 x 1 = 1
  4. a.   Functions of Council of elders among the Maasai in the pre-colonial period    (3 Marks)
    1. Settles disputes
    1. Maintained law and order
    1. Declaring war and raids
    1. Final court of appeal
    1. Advising warriors/ blessing warriors                                                                          1 x 3 = 3 Marks

      b.   Political organization of the Luo during the pre- colonial period                       (12 Marks)

–     Lowest political unit was the family headed by Jaduong

–     There was the lineage councils (buch dhot) whose duty was to settle domestic disputes

–     Several families formed the clan with a council of elders called ‘Doho’ which was responsible for settling inter-family disputes.

–     A group of clans formed the Oganda which was under a higher council called ‘bunch-piny‘ 

–     Bunch – Piny had the following functions/ Responsible in:

  • Settling major inter- clan conflicts
  • Declining criminals e.g. murderers

–     They had warriors who defended the community and raided neighbours                 2 x 6 = 12 Marks

ANS 1,2,3 and 16 DISTRICT 4

1.         – Solving land and inheritance dispute

            – Acted as a court of appeal

            – Presided over religious functions

            – Advised warriors

            – Made laws / moral code

            – Negotiated peace settlement/declared war

                                    Any 2 x 1 = 2mks)

2.         – Oral tradition                        (1 x 1 = 1mk)

18.       a)         – The Eastern cushites people intermarried with the people they came into contact such as


                        – Their settlement in Kenya led to the expansion of trade in the region

                        – Demand of Agricultural produce by the Somali led to the expansion of Agriculture in

                        central and same parts of Eastern Kenya.

                        – Their settlement led to the increased conflicts between the communities over resources

                        such as water and pasture and land.

                        – Their migration and settlement led to the displacement and redistribution of people in the

                        area where they settled

                        – Led to cultural – exchange between the Somali and the people they came into contact

                        with for example neighbouring communities like Pokomo adopted Islam

                        – The Cushitic speaking communities brought the practice of circumcision and some

                        characteristics of age-set system organization.

                        – Their settlement in high agricultural potential areas i.e encouraged some of them to

                        practice crop farming eg. Parts of marsabit

                        – Assimilation                          (any 5 x 1 = 5mks)

            b)         – The Borana were organized into clans

                        – Clans were made up of different lineage

                        – Each clan belonged to a kinship system

                        – The age-sets provided warriors who defended the community

                        – Borana were divided politically into two main sub-tribes moleties which formed basic

                        units of political organization

                        – The moieties were further divided into sub moieties and clans which were formed by

                        separate lineage and united by ownership of wells and kinship ties.

                        – Clans helped each other during times of crisis

                        – Sub-tribes / moleties had a hereditary leader known as Kallu whose camp was the

                        political and spiritual centre.

                        – The Kallu was a spiritual leader and his main duty was to solve conflicts between clans

                        and in his moiety / sub-tribe with the help of the elders.

                        – Borana had council of elders whose main function was to maintain law and order, settle

                        disputes and organized territorial defence through warrior council (Harriya)

                        – Borana had a complex age – group and age set system which provided a military base for

                        the society

                        – Handling cover of leadership was done through the performance of the butla ceremony

                                                (10mks)(marks as a whole, any points, 5 x 2 = 10mks

ANS 1,2 and 18, DISTRICT 5

1.         Give one disadvantage of oral traditions as a source of information on History and Government of Kenya                                                                                                         (1mk)

            –           The stories may be exaggerated. It is hard to tell  what is real and what is imagined

            –           Some information may be forgotten or omitted since human memory is not precise

            –           The stories may be changed for various reasons.

            –           It does not provide dates or sequence of events

            –           Its expensive as one has to pay accommodation, lunch transport and of informant.

            –           It is time consuming, interviewing people

2.         Name two groups of Cushitic speakers in Kenya                                                              (2mks)

–           The Eastern Cushites                                                                                      2 x 1 = 2mks

            –           The Southern Cushites

3.         State two factors which were considered while choosing the chairman of the council of elders             among the Nandi                                                                                                       (2mks)

–           His generosity / His Wealth

            –           His wise judgment / wisdom

            –           His oratory skills                                                                                             2 x 1 = 2mks

4.         Give two roles of medicinemen among the Akamba during the pre-colonial period in

Kenya                                                                                                                                     (2mks)

–           Treatment of various ailments

            –           Offerings sacrifices

            –           Praying to God and ancestral spirits.                                                              2 x 1 = 2mks

18        a) State five results of the migration of the Maasai into Kenya during the pre-colonial

Period                                                                                                                         (5mks)

            –            Intermarriages occurred / took place between the Maasai and

neighbouring communities.    

  • Expansion of economic activities of trade, pastoralism
  • There was cultural interraction’
  • There was increased conflict among communities
  • Leadership developed where they settled e.g Laibon
  • Population increased.                                                                                      5 x 1 = 5mks

b)         Describe the political organization of the Somali in Kenya during the pre-colonial

period                                                                                                                         (10mks)

            The basic political unit was the clan

  • The clan was headed by council of elders
  • The council of elders maintained law and order and settled disputes
  • They practiced the age – set system
  • They existed warriors whose main duty was to protect the community from external attack
  • They also had sheiks / sultans as leaders expecially after adopting Islam.    5 x 2 = 10mks

ANS 1,2,3,4 and 18 DISTRICT 6

1.         Define the term pre – history                                                                                      ( 1 mk)

            The time before use of written records in history.                                                                 

2.         Identify the main reason why the Mijikenda live in Kayas.                                       (1 mk)

            To protect themselves against attacks from hostile neighbours                                            

16.       a)         State five economic reasons why the cushites migrated from their original homeland into

Kenya.                                                                                                 ( 5 mks)

                        i)          Search for pasture / drought

                        ii)         Outbreak of animals and Human diseases.

                        iii)        Search for land for cultivation

                        iv)        Internal conflicts

                        v)         Invasion by outsiders

                        vi)        Over population                                                                                  Any 5 x 1 = 5 mks

            b)         What were the results of the migration of the cushites into Kenya during its

 pre – colonial period.                                                                                     ( 10 mks)

                        i)          Cushites displaced some communities they came into contact with

 e.g cushites forced the eastern Bantus to evaluate shungwaya.

ii)         The  cushites traded with Bantus. This promoted economic activities in the country.           

                        iii)        The  cushites interacted with the Kenyan communities and this led to

 inter marriage between them.

iv)        The cushites introduced new breeds of animals which are now widespread in Kenya e.g Borana cattle.

v)         The cushites fought wars with some of the Bantus groups and this created instabilities and loss of life.

vi)        The cushites introduced the age – set system among the nilotic and Bantu communities.

vii)       The cushites practiced of circumcision among some Kenyan communities.

viii)      There was the emergence of new communities e.g Digit      

( Any 5 well explained x 2 = ( 10 mks).

ANS 1,2 and 16 DISTRICT 7

1. What is pre-history                                                                          (1mk)

            -It refers to those activities that man engaged in the past before writing or drawing  were invented as a             way of storing knowledge

            -Refers to unrecorded or unwritten history                          1 X1 =1mk

2. Identify two forms of Early manuscripts used as sources of information on history and government

            -Stone tablets

            -Scrolls                                                                                                  2×1= 2mks

3. Name two communities in Kenya who belong to the coastal Bantus    (2mks)                                                



            -Pokomo                                                                                                2×1=2mks

4. Identify the first missionary station in Kenya established by the church   missionary society     

            -Rabai                                                                                             (1mk)

ANS 1,2,3 and 4 DISTRICT 8

1.         State two ways in which the Akamba and the Maasai interacted during pre – colonial period.

i)          Through trade

            ii)         Intermarriage

            iii)        Through raids for livestock

            iv)        Sports / Cultural activities                             

            v)         They fought wars with each other                                                                  (1 x 2 = 2mks)

2.         Give the main reason why the Abagusii migrated from their settlement at Ramogi hills in

            the sixteenth century                                                                                                            (1mk)

i)          Attack from the Luo’s                                                                                     (1 x 1 = 1mk)

3.         What was the main significance of initiation ceremony carried out in traditional Kenya Societies?       

i)          Moving from childhood to adult hood                                                            (1 x 1 = 1mk)

18a)     Give three economic activities of the Cushites during the pre – colonial period in Kenya.                                                                                                                                                                  (3mks)

  1. Pastoralists
  2. Hunted and gathered
  3. Did iron smelting and made tools e.g. swords
  4. Practiced local industry e.g leather bags, open shoes and clothing
  5. Traded with their neighbours such as the Samburu,Pokomo, Mijikenda.
  6. Some cushites who lived river valleys practiced subsistence farming they grew vegetables, dates and bananas.                                                                                                          3×1=3mks

b)         Describe the political organization of the Agikuyu during the pre – colonial period.(12mks)

      i)                The smallest social unit was the family

      ii)               Several related families formed a clan(Mbari) which lived in a defined area.

iii)              They initiated boys and girls.

  1. Member of an age set worked together and considered  each other as brothers and sisters
  2. Marriage was highly regarded as one could raise a family and own property
  3. They believed in existence of God- Ngai.
  4. They offered sacrifices to God.
  5. They believed in ancestral spirits
  6. Had sacred/Holy places of worship such as groves and fig trees.
  7. Had traditional specialists e.g. prophets medicine, medicinemen,rainmaker who were consulted in time of need.                                                                                             6×2 = 12mks

ANS 1,2,3 and 18 DISTRICT 9

  1. Identify two ways used by archaeologists in Kenya to locate an  archaeological site                                                                                                                                           (2mks)
    1. Looking for areas where faulting or erosion has occurred exposing some remains
    1. Finding a small part of an early settlement on the surface
    1. Looking for sites mentioned in historical documents or oral narratives
    1. Archaeologists may use their long experience and skills to identify the site
    1. During cultivation and building constructions, workers may accidentally expose ancient objects               Any 2×1 = 2marks
  2. Name two sub-tribes of the Mijikenga                                                               (2mks)
  3. Jibana
  4. Digo
  5. Rabai
  6. Chonyi
  7. Duruma
  8. Kauma
  9. Giriama
  10. Ribe
  11. Kambe                    Any 2×1 = 2marks
  12. Name the basic political unit of the Bantu in the pre-colonial period               (1mk)
  13. The clan                                            1×1 = 1mark
  14. State two religious functions of the orkoiyot  among the Nandi during the pre- colonial period                                                                                            (2mks) 
  15. He presided over religious  ceremonies / acted as priest
  16. Blessed warriors before they went to war
  17. He foretold the  future / acted as a prophet
  18. He was a rain maker
  19. He was a medicine  man   Any 2×1 = 2marks


  1. i.)  It is  expensive

            ii.) It is time consuming

            iii) It is difficult to adopt to the environment during research

           iv) Availability of the date is difficult as human beings change according to time.    

           v) People under research may behave differently when research is going on. (2 x 1 = 2mks)

  • a) i) Junior elders

     ii) Medium elders/ Nthele

     iii)Full elders/ Atumia ma Kivalo

     iv) Senior – most elders / Atumia ma Ithembo                                      (3×1= 3mks)

 b)  i) Led to spread of iron-working to other parts of Kenya e.g. the Luo borrowed the skill.

      ii) Increased population in the region they settled in.

      iii) Increased inter – community conflict / warfare.g with the Oromo at the coast, the                   maasai in R.valley and the Luo near L. Victoria.

      iv) Trading activities intensified as the Bantu exchanged their iron products with other products e.g.      .the Abagusii got basketry from Luo.

      v) Increased cultural interaction / some Bantus assimilated the Southern cushites while some   were assimilated by the Nilotes and the Cushites.

       vi) Led to spread of agricultural practices in Kenya / the Kwavi maasai adopted  cultivation      from              Bantus.

       vii) Their settlement led to population redistribution e.g. the Dorobo moved to forested areas.

       viii) It resulted in the displacement of some communities e.g. the Agikuyu displaced the             Eastern cushites from parts of central Kenya

       ix) Led to intermarriages between Bantu communities and other groups e.g. the Abaluhya        with             the maasai , kalenjins and luo.

       x)  Exchange of knowledge and skills took place e.g. they adopted the age – set system and             circumcision from the southern Cushites.                                           (6×2=12mks)

ANS 1 and 18 DISRICT 11

1.         i)          Through trade

ii)         Through wars/raids

iii)       Through intermarriages

iv)        Through ceremonies.                                                                                       (Any 2×1=2mks)

3.         – Look for pasture and water for livestock.

16. a)

– In search of fertile land.

– Population pressure forced them to migrate.

– Internal conflicts forced them to flee.

– Escape external attacks from their neighbours.

– Disease and epidemics forced them to migrate.

– Satisfy their desire for adventure.

– Escape drought and famine.                                                                                     (Any 5×1=5mks)

b)         – Spread iron working to other parts of Kenya e.g. to the Luo.

– Increased population in areas where they settled.

– Increased intercommunity conflicts.

– Intensified trading activities e.g. Abagusii exchanged iron products for basketry from the  Luo.

– Led to spread of Agricultural activities in Kenya e.g. Kwavi Maasai adopted farming.

– Led to population redistribution.

– Led to displacement of other communities e.g. the Luo displaced the Abagusii  in Kano Plains.

– Increased cultural interaction with other groups e.g. Bantu absorbed Southern Cushites.

– Led to intermarriages with other groups e.g. Abaluhya married Abagusii.

– Exchanged iron working skills with other African groups.                                     (Any 5×2=10mks)

ANS 1,3 and 16 DISTRICT 12

  1. Identify the Cushitic groups who migrated into Kenya?

            i)  Rendile

           ii) Burji


           iv) Oromo

           v)  Gabra

           vi) somali                                                                                                    Any 2 x1=2mks

  • Identify two roles of the Orkoiyot among the Nandi

                   i) Presided over religious functions

            ii) Advised the council of elders on running the community

            iii) Advised and blessed warriors before raids or wars

            iv) Acted as rain makers and medicine men.

            v)  Foretold the future

            iv) As political leaders and was consulted on matters of the transfer of power from                     one age group to another.                                   Any 2×1 = 2mks

  • Identify one community in Kenya that is considered hybrids?

            i)  Swahili

            ii) Abasuba                                                                                                   Any 2×1=2mks

  • (a) Three reasons why the plain Nilotes migrated from their cradle land to Kenya                     during the pre-colonial period

                    i) Population pressure in their land

                    ii) Internal feuds amongst them

                    iii) External attack from their neighboring communities.

                    iv) Outbreak of epidemic diseases.

                    v)  Outbreak of drought and famine

                    vi) Search for water and pasture for their animals

                    vii) Spirit of adventure                                                      Any two points 2×1=2mks

(b) Six result interaction between the Luos and Luhya’s in the pre-colonial period

                    i)  Intermarriage took places as either community marries from the other

                    ii) Outbreak of war as they fought over resources

                    iii) Increase in population as the communities settled in the western region

                    iv) Increase trading activities as different goods were introduced into the market

                    v)  Fresh migration or displacement took place as some communities sought                                    spacious grounds

                    vi)  Cultural exchanges some names became common amongst the communities

                    vii) Assimilation of some groups e.g. Samia, Marama emerged

                    viii) Increased social activities such as games took place     Any 6points 2×6=12mks

ANS 1,2,3 and 16 DISTRICT 13

  1. Name one prehistoric site in Kenya.                                                                              (1mk)
  2. Rusinga island
  3. Fort Ternan
  4. Kariandusi
  5. Gambles cave
  6. Olorgesailie
  7. Kobi Fora
  8. Hyrax Hill
  9. Njoro River Cave

1 x 1 = 1 mark

  • Apart from the Nandi, name any other community in Kenya that resisted the British occupation.                                                                                                              (1mk)
  • Agiriama
  • Bukusu
  • somali

1 x 1 = 1 mark

  • (a)  Give three reasons for the migrations of the Borana from Ethiopia to

 Kenya during the pre-colonial period.                                                                       (3mks)                                                            

  • Search for land for cultivation
  • Drought and famine
  • Increased human population
  • Outbreak of diseases and epidemics
  • Attacked by hostile neighbours
  • Love for adventure
  • Family and clan quarrels
  • Floods that caused destruction to settlement

History- Topical Questions on The Peoples Of Kenya Upto The 19TH Century KCSE Revision Answers

      (b)  Describe the political organization of the Borana during the pre-colonial period.    (12mks)

  • The society was divided into clans that were related through a common descent.
  • The society was divided into two halves known as moieties.  The moiety was divided into sub-moieties which were then divided into clans.
  • Each moiety was ruled by a hereditary leader known as Kallu. His duties included being a sacred ritual leader and setting disputes between clans.  He also elected age-set leaders.
  • The Kallu ruled with the help of the council of elders.
  • The clans were important in the political organization. They lived in camps under a council of elders whose duties were
    • Made and enforced laws.
    • Dealt with cases of ownership of grazing land and wells.
    • Solved marriage disputes, murder, theft and rape cases.
    • Presided over religious ceremonies
      • Boys who were circumcised together formed an age-set Hariyya).  They formed the bases of military organization.  They defended the community and organized raids.

6 x 2 = 12mks

ANS 1,2 and 18 DISTRICT 14

  1. Maasai and the Agikuyu interacted through – 2mks
    1. conflict/war
    1. through trade
    1. intermarriages
    1. cultural exchange

2 x1 = 2 mks

  • Examples of a centralized society on Kenya during the pre-colonial period. (1 mks)
    • The Wanga  1m k
  • (a) Causes of migration by nilotes. (5 mks)
  • population pressure
  • search for land for cultivation
  • search for pasture and water for their livestock
  • draught and famine
  • internal feuds
  • diseases and epidemics
  • hostile neighbours / eternal attacks
  • diseases and epidemic
  • hostile neighbours/external attacks
  • desire for adventure  (5 x 1 = 5mks)
  • Discuss the political organization of the mijikenda. (10 mks)
    • Basic political unit-clan.
    • Ruled by council of elders/who settled disputes/presiding over religious ceremonies.
    • Had age set system provided various.
    • Defended the community.
    • Had a decentralized systems of government.
    • Council of elders was divided into senior and junior.
    • Council of elders was called kambi.

ANS 1,2 and 16 DISTRICT 15

1.         Oromo attacks

            Search for pastures      2×1 = 2mk

2.         Joka owiny                  1×1 = 1mk

18.       (a) Significance of circumcision

  • It was meant to ensure upright behaviour.
  • Instill courage in a person.
  • Enhance devotion of a person to the community.
  • Make one responsible to himself
  • Make one appreciate the successs of others.
  • Make one trustworthy enough to be entrusted with the secrets of the community. 1×5 = 5mks

(b) Political organization of the Borana during the pre-colonial period.

  • The organization was based on the kinship system/moleties
  • There were two large moleties the Sabbo and the gona.
  • Each molety was headed by a leader whose title was Kallu
  • The kallu’s position was hereditary.
  • His duties were to solve or judging major disputes as well as being a sacred ritual leader in celemonies.
  • Moleties were further divided into sub moleties.
  • these sub moleties were also further divided into clans made up of related members through common descent.
  • In each clan there were councils of elders selected from the grades i.e 3 to 11 Gamme Gugundo to Gada majji.
  • These had the task of settling disputes, maintaining law and order as well as organizing territorial defence.
  • The kallu together with the council were responsible for electing gada leaders when it prepared to enter a new gada grade.
  • Then age set system (Hariyya) was very complex and helped provide a military base for the society.
  • The age set and gada grades were different. Each grade lasted eight years and these were eleven while age set members were of the same age, gada class  members varied in age.
  • There was the age set council that was charged with the responsibility of recruiting worriors.
  • Members of the gada classes also formed the gada council that made decisions concerning their classes hence contributing to the development of an effective pol organization.

1×10 = 10mks

ANS 1,2 and 18 DISTRICT 16

1.         – To understand our culture and appreciate other people’s culture

– To comprehend the social development of our societies e.g. migrations, interactions etc

– It helps in the development of virtues like empathy.                                               (1 x 1=1mk)

2.         – Fishing                                                                                                                      (1 x 1=1mk)

18.       a)         – Spread of iron technology to other Kenyan communities

– Cultural interactions between the Bantu and other Kenyan communities

– Displacement of some communities

– Increase in inter community trade

– Increase warfare

– Led to population increase in areas where they settled

– The Bantu being farmers spread the knowledge of agriculture.

– It led to intermarriage.                                                                                  (3 x 1=3mks)

b)         – The family was the basic social unit headed by a man

            – Several related families formed a clan

            – At puberty boys and girls were initiated

            – There was division of labour

            – They believed in an ancestral spirits

            – They had many ceremonies marked with dances

            – They were polygamous but exogamous

            – They had different related languages e.g. Somali,gahima etc.        (Any 6 x 2=12mks)

ANS 1,2 and 18 DISTRICT 17

1.      Koobi Fora                                                         (1×1=1mk)

2.      i)       Conducting raids for cattle

         ii)      Defending the community against external attacks                      (2×1=2mks)

4.      Advised Ruoth (Chief) in his work                                           (1×1=mk)

16.    a)      i)       Provided warriors

                  ii)      Prepares people for leadership roles

  1. Promotes social status of an individual e.g. marriage / responsibility
  2. Promotes one from one stage to another e.g. adulthood
  3. Formed after circumcision.                                                              (3×1=3mks)

         b)      i)       Spread of iron working to other parts of Kenya

                  ii)      Increased population in the regions they settled

  1. Inter community conflicts with other groups
  2. Development of trading activities with the people they came in to contact with
  3. It increased cultural interaction with other communities
  4. Led to the spread of agricultural practices
  5. There settlement led to population redistribution
  6. It resulted to displacement of some communities
  7. There was intermarriages between Agikuyu and other groups.                  (6×2=12mks)

ANS 1,2,4 and 16 DISTRICT18

  1. Identify two roles of “Nzama” among the Kamba during the pre-colonial period.
  2. Administer the village.
  3. Preside over civil and criminal cases.
  4. Settled disputes.
  5. Controlled planting and harvesting.
  6. Regulated the size of livestock in proportion to available pasture.

        2pts x 1 = 2mrks)

  • Name the Kenya community that belongs to the southern Cushites.
  • Dahallo/Sanye                                                                                                          


  • State two reasons that made the age-set system significant among African. (2mrks)
  • Provided warriors who protected the communities.
  • Senior age-set members became elders who were leaders of the communities.
  • It promoted unity among the Africans                                            

(2pts x 1 = 2mrks)

  • a)    Name three bantu Speaking Communities which had settled in the coastal region of Kenya  by


  1. Taita
  2. Pokomo
  3. Mijikenda                                                                                                                           

        (1 x 3 = 3mrks)

        b)    Explain the results of the migration and settlement of the Bantu speaking people into Kenya .

  1. They spread their knowledge of iron working and smelting.
  2. They intermarried with the neighboring communities e.g the Maasai and the Agikuyu.
  3. They assimilated some of the people they settled among e.g Agikuyu Assimilated the Gumba.
  4. They traded with the neighbouring communities. Their migration and settlement led to inter

        communal wars.

  • Their settlement led to the spread of their economic institution e.g Agricultural.
  • They displaced some communities in the areas they settled.
  • Cultural exchange with other communities’ e.g Abaluhya learned the practice of keeping cattle and

        age-set organization.                     

        (Any 6 x 2 = 12mrks) 

ANS 1,2,3 and 17 DISTRICT 19

2          Name two communities in Kenya that belong to the Western Bantu (2mks)

1. Abakuria

2. Abagusii

3.  Abaluhya

4.  Abasuba

3          Outline the main Economic activity of the river lake Nilotes (1mk)

            – fishing

16        (a) Give five social results of the interaction between the Bantu and the

Cushites  (5 mks)

  • Cultural exchange with their Bantu neighbours e.g. circumcision
  • Increased welfare (conflicts) over pasture and water
  • Displacement of the Bantu e.g. Mijikenda from Shungwaya region
  • Intermarriages between the cushites and Bantus e.g. the Pokomo
  • They enriched one another’s language through word borrowing
  • Increased in population
  • Assimilation (absorption) between the two groups
  • Describe the social political organization of the Nandi in pre-colonial Kenya   (10 mks)

Social organization

  • Family was the basic social unit.  Several related families formed a  clan
    • Believed in a supreme god, Asis, who lived in the sky
    • Prayers were offered through ancestors who medicated with God to protect the homestead
    • Boys and girls were initiated.  Boys joined one of the eight cyclical age-sets in which they remained for life
    • Initiates were taught about the deepest values of the society.
    • Education was informal
    • Had important religious leaders like medicine men, diviners and rainmakers i.e. the orkoiyot aHhH

Political organization

  • The basic political unit was the clan which was made up of related


  • Several clans joined together to form a larger unit called Pororiet
  • The clan was governed by a junior council of elders who settled minor disputes and divided grazing land
  • Each Pororiet was controlled by a council of elders who performed several duties e.g.
    • Maintain law and order
    • Settling minor disputes
    • Final court of appeal
    • Declared war or negotiated for peace
    • Organized raids
    • Conducted ceremonies
  • After initiation, boys joined the warrior class which defended the community
  • They had the institution of the orkoiyot who also performed political functions like
    • blessing the worriers
    • Advised the council of elders
    • Settling disputes between council of elders and clans

1 x 5= 10 mks

                        NB:  Q 16 b – 5mks for social organization

                                                5 mks for political organization

                                                Total (10 mks)

ANS 2,3 and 16 DISTRICT 20.

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