Check the answers after the Questions

1.         a) Form four students of your school carried out a field study on beef farming in Narok District.

                (i) State four objectives of their study.                                                                           

                (ii) Give four follow up activities they carried out.                                                        

         (b) Students of Kakao secondary school intend to undertake a field study of Olkaria I geothermal

              power generating project. Answer the following questions;

             (i) State three objectives they would write down for the field study                                  

             (ii) List three preparations they would undertake before the actual field study                  

       (c) Your class visited a biogas digester near your school;

             (i) Describe how it was constructed                                                                                     

            (ii) List three raw materials the class may have identified which are used in the production

                of biogas                                                                                                                             

2.         a) You are planning to carry out a field study on soil in an arid region.

                        i) What are some of the characteristics you would observe?                                    

                        ii) Why would you prepare a working schedule for the study?                                

3.         a)i)Give three  natural vegetation zones  on mount Kenya                                                    

               ii) Name three temperate grasslands found   in the world                                                    

               iii) Describe the characteristics of the hot desert vegetation                                                

            b) Explain three causes of the decline of the areas under forests in Kenya                           

c) You are supposed to carry out a field study of a weather station near your school

                  i)What preparations would you make for the study                                                        

                  ii) What instruments are you likely to find within the Stevenson box                            

4.         (a) You are required to carry out a field study on vegetation within the local environment;

                 (i) Apart from identifying different types of plants, state other activities you will carry

                      during the field study                                                                                       

                (ii) How will you identify the different types of plants                                                     

          (b) Form four students from Kisumu west district carried out a field study in an area of soil

                erosion in Machakos district

              (i)  State three causes of soil erosion they could have identified                                       

              (ii) Name two effects of soil erosion they have identified                                                  

              (iii) State any one objective for their study                                                                         

5.         (a) Students from Kisumu West secondary school carried out a field study in the area

                  covered by the map

               (i) What three preparations did they make?                                                                       

               (ii) State any null hypothesis for the study                                                                         

b) Your class intends to carry out a field study on weathering within the vicinity of the school

                i) State the type of information you are likely to collect                                      

                ii) State two follow up activities you are likely to carry after the study              

6.         (a) Students from Kericho school set out to conduct a field study on the relationship between

                 climate and vegetation of the area covered by the map.

               (i) What preparation did they carry out for the study?                                                   

              (ii) State three evidences they would identify to support climate change.                         

              (iii) State two possible alternative hypotheses for the study                                         

(b) Students are planning to carry out a field study in the area affected by climate change;

              (i) State three ways in which observation would be the best method of data collection.   

          (c) Citing evidence from the map, explain three factors that have influenced settlement in the

                area covered by the map.                                                                                                   

7.         (a) Students of Chepkosilen school carried a field study on economic activities in the

                 area covered by the map.

                (i) Give two preparations they made before the study.                                                     

                (ii) State two hypotheses for their study.                                                                          

               (iii) Citing evidence, identify three economic activities that they studied.                                  

                (iv) What type of map is Belgut?                                                                                      

              (b) Students from your school have conducted a field study on a Lake in Kenya

              (i) In their study they identified some of the problems affecting the lake to have been

                    caused by nearby industries and deforestation in the surrounding areas. Explain how

                    each of the two could have  affected the lake.                                                               

               (ii) Name any two methods they might have used to collect the data.                              

              (iii) State any two reasons why it would be important to do follow-up after the study       

(d) You are required to carry out a field study on soil erosion around your school

     (i) State two methods you would use t record data                                                          

                (ii) Give three problems you may encounter during the field study                                

8.         a) Students of Masabot School carried out a field study of Changoi tea factory.

     i) Name two types of roads they used to travel to Changoi tea factory.                          

    ii) What preparations they were likely to make for the study                                           

            b)(i)  Suppose you were a student in the school at Tegat and you plan to carry out a day’s

                     field study  of Changoi tea factory.  Design a working programme (schedule) you would

                     use during the day of study      

.                ii) Your class is required to carry out a field study of a river. What would be the advantages

                      of  dividing the class into groups according to the stages   of the long profile of the river ?

9.         a) You intent to carry out a field study on a desert landscape.

                 i) Apart from conducting oral interviews, state two other methods you would use to

                     collect information                                                                                                        

                  ii) State two problems that you are likely to encounter in the field                                

            b) You are provided to carry out a field study of the vegetation within the local environment;

               i) Apart from identifying the different types of plants, state three other activities you

                   will carry out during the field study                                                                   

               ii) How will you identify the different types of plants?                                         

10.      a) Your class went for a field study in Samburu.

               i) List three methods they are likely to have used to present their findings                      

     b)    i) State three activities they would be involved in.                                                                    

                   ii) Identify three problems they are likely to encounter.                                               

11.     (a) You are required to carry out a field work on soils around your school:-

               (i) State three objectives for your study                                                                            

               (ii) State two reasons why it would be necessary to carry samples back to school                       

(b) You carried out field work ion soils around your school:-

    (i) State three preparations you made before the actual day of field work                      

   (ii) State any three problems you encountered during the field work                               

12.       (a) You are to carry out a field study on rivers near your school:-

     (i) Name three methods you will use to collect your data                                               

     (ii) Why is it important to carry out a pre-visit                                                                 

    (iii) How will your findings be useful to the local community?                                        

13.       (a) A field study was carried out around the rift valley lakes:-

                  State two characteristics of the lakes they would have identified                                  

  b) You intend to go for a field study to a region where folding has occurred.

                        i) State three reasons why you would conduct a pre-visit.                                       

                        ii) Identify two methods you would use to record data.                                           

               c)i) State two problems they may face during their study                                                   

                   ii) State two follow up activities they may have been involved in after the field study              

14.       The table below shows the crops produced in Kenya between the years 2000 to 2002

CROPS ‘000’200020012002

             (a) (i) Calculate the percentage of wheat production in the year 2000                                

                  (ii) Using a scale of 1cm rep 200 units, draw proportional circles to show the production

                        of  crops each year. Show your calculations                                                              

             (b) Explain three physical conditions which favour wheat growing in Kenya                   

            (c) Compare wheat growing in Kenya and Canada under the following:-

                        (i) Mechanization                                                                                                       

                        (ii) Marketing                                                                                                             

                        (iii) Size                                                                                                                     

            (d) State four uses of wheat                                                                                                  

15.      (a) Use the following information to answer the questions below:

Type of energyNo. of families using each typeAverage monthly income per family (Kshs.)
Fire wood Kerosene Charcoal Liquid Petroleum Gas Saw dust Hydroelectricity13,400 11,200 9,100 5,300 4,000 2,000900 1600 1000 3000 900 4500

            (i) Draw a pie-chart with a radius of 4cm to represent the number of families using each type

                   of  energy. Show your calculations

           (b) Students from Matungu district went to study gold mining in Kakamega South district

                (i) State any two main preparations made before field study visit                                    

                (ii) Give any two follow-up activities they engage in after the study                               

           (c) Suppose you were to conduct a field study in Kakamega forest

               (i) State three problems that are likely to hinder your work                                              

               (ii) How could you determine the following:-

-Heights of a tree                                                                                                      

-Diameter of stem                                                                                                      

-Tree of the same species                                                                                           

       (d) You have been asked to conduct field study on land pollution in an urban set up;

         (i) State three problems that you may encounter;                                                                    

         (ii) Your class carried out a field study on forests in your area. List four measures you

                would  recommend to conserve forests in the area


1.         a)   – To find out where farmers get their livestock/hides                                                       

   – Find out the significant of beef produce to the local areas.

               ii)    – Displaying the filled questionnaires.                                                                

  • Displaying photographs taken.
  • Giving a lecture on beef farming.
  • Carry out group discussions.
  • Drawing proper sketches.

     b i)    – To find out the various ways in which the power plant benefits the surrounding


  • To discover the amount of power generated by the plant
  • To find out the problem facing geothermal power generation in Kenya
  • To find out the power generation potential of the rift valley area

b ii)   –  Formulator of  objectives before actual field study                                                      

  • Write to Kengen to seek permission to visit Olkaria
  • Collect all the necessary writing materials
  • Conduct a reconnaissance to the site
  • Prepare a questionnaire for use on the day of study
  • Prepare a working schedule   

c) i)    – A pit is dug not too deep or shallow                                                                              

  • The pit is cemented and sealed to prevent gas from escaping
  • Pipes are connected to carry the biogas to the burners
  • Pour the dung and other waste into the digester and mix with water
  • Anaerobic bacteria feed on it giving off biogas        

   ii)    – Saw dust                                                                                                                             

  • Agricultural wastes
  • Wood

–    Dung

2          . a i)    – Soils are light in colour                                                                                        

                        – Soils are sandy/ stony

                        – Soils are loose in texture

                        – Soils are thin

                        – Soils have low moisture content

ii)         2 columns of time & activity                                                                                               

Time of departure

Two activities indicating data collection

Time back to school

TIME 8 a.m 8.30 9.00       4 p.mACTIVITY Departure from school Arrival at the field Testing or feeling of soil texture Measuring the alkalinity of soil Carrying out experiment on water retention Observing of the soil e.t.c. Going back to school 

3.         a i)   – Savanna vegetation                                                                                                

  • Rainforest
  • Bamboo forests
  • Health and moorland

                ii)   – prairies                                                                                                                   

  • steppes
  • downs
  • veld

        iii)   – some have thick/fleshy/succulent  leaves /barks                                                                

  • some have long tap  roots
  • some  have no  leaves /have  thin/spiky/waxy/needle like leaves
  • some plants have  thick/hard  barks
  • some  plants have  thorns
  • some  plants  are  stunted/dwarf like
  • shrubs are common
  • some plants spout  during wet seasons (short  time)

   b)    – fire-often ,large  areas of  forests are destroyed  by accidental  and sometimes intended   

           fire.  such forests takes long  to recover                                                                                     

  • diseases   causes by pests and parasites attack  mainly  the planted  forests causing many trees  to die
  • human activity  /settlement /charcoal burning/logging have  destroyed  many  forests areas of which are transformed in to farms and  grasslands
  • over-exploitation leads  to depletion of certain tree  species such as Meru oak, camphor and Elgon teak. these trees take long  to mature
  • government policy of  degazetting  of some forests  made  people free to clear  many  forested areas
  • prolonged droughts  lead  to degeneration  of forests some of which  take long to recover

   ci)                 – Conduct a previsit                                                                                               

            –   Collect the tools and equipments needed for the study

            – Prepare a working schedule

            – Read secondary sources at information

            – Formulate the objectives and hypothesis

            – Decide on the method of data collection

   ii)                  – Hygrometer (wet and dry bulb thermometer)                                                   

– Ordinary thermometer

– Six’s thermometer (max & min thermometer)

4.         a i)     –  Stating either activities to be carried out during the field                                         

– Recording the data an types of vegetation

– Collecting data on vegetation types and conditions favoring their growth.

– Drawing the structure of plants leaves

– By classification and characteristics of leaves of different plants.               

– Observing types of roots and stem of the different plants

    b i)  –    high population increase                                                                                                         

  • poor grazing methods
  • poor management of bench terraces
  • nature of  the   landscape
  • charcoal burning

          ii)  –  loss of top soil                                                                                                             

  • siltation of water reservoirs and H.E.P dams on  Tana  river
  • deposit  of sand along river  leading to sand harvesting
  • intensification of soil  conversation awareness in  the district       

      iii)-  to find out the cause  of soil erosion in machakos district                                          

– to find out  the effect of soil erosion  in machakos  district

5.         a i)   –   formulation of hypothesis /objective                                                                               

  • reconnaissance survey
  • prepare route  map
  • prepare a  working schedule
  • carry out secondary research(content  analysis)
  • seek permission from relevant authority
  • prepare necessary stationery
  • make travel arrangement

       ii) – the residents of the area covered by the map sheet do not have access to tea products

               meant for  export                                                                                                            

– The tea plantation does not stretch outside the Belgut district boundary

    b i)   – Factors that influence weathering                                                                                          

  • Types and processes of weathering
  • Effects of weathering on physical and human environment

        ii)   – Draw sketches of features                                                                                                      

             – Data analysis                                                                                                                                         

  • Data interpretation
  • Discuss the findings     

6          .a) i)    –  Pre – visit/ reconnaissance                                                                           

  • Preparing equipments to be used
  • Asking permission from relevant authorities
  • Setting objectives/ hypothesis
  • Preparing map of the place/ route map
  • Discussion before the field day          

          ii)  – Climate of the area have direct influence on vegetation                                   

 – The vegetation of the area changes with the change of climate

       b i)  – Reduced amount of vegetation cover                                                                        

  • Reduced mountain shows in the tropical highlands
  • Severe wind and soil erosion
  • Presence of strong winds
  • Failing of crop yield
  • Reduced size of water bodies
  • High localized temperatures
  • Low plant/ animal population densities                     

             i)              – First hand information would be collected                                               

– Data collected would be reliable

– It is a quick method of data collection  

    . c)       –       Relief – steep slopes have no / sparse settlements evidenced in western side (KEBEWET  AREA) since  such slopes are not ideal for erection of houses/ gently sloping slopes have dense settlements as is in control part of near (Chemalul, Kablanga, Kapwaso) areas 

                      since  they form ideal sites for erection of structures                                              

  • Vegetation areas with thick vegetation e.g. forests, plantations have scarce settlements (Tea estates and forests in S.E). Such vegetation discourages settlement
  • Drainage – poorly drained places like mashes have no settlements since the places cannot provide firm sites for erection of houses/ well drained places have dense settlements such sites provide water for a domestic use and provide firm sites
  • Transport lines – Areas with good road network have dense settlements for easy transportation of people and goods e.g. along loose surface roads

7. a i)         – Reading from secondary sources                                                                          

– Carrying out reconnaissance

– Formulation of hypotheses and statement of objectives

–  Division of class into smaller groups

– Asking permission from relevant authorities    

ii)         –  Most of the crops grown are cash/ most crops grown are subsistence               

– Crop farming is more dominant than livestock keeping

– Most of the economic activities take place in areas with good transport network


ACTIVITY – plantation farming – Livestock farming – Manufacturing – Transport – TradeEVIDENCE – Existence of estates – Existence of dips – Tea factory (4647) – Existence of roads – Shops

       iv) – Topographical                                                                                                                   


               -Has led to disposal of industrial wastes into the lake contaminating /polluting the

                water and  interfering with aquatic life                                                                                              

  • Agro-chemicals/industrial effluents washed into the lake has promoted weed loons    
  •  causing  the  lake to be colonized by weeds/water hyacinth 


  • Has exposed soils to agents of erosion; the eroded soils have been carried and deposited

          in the lake siltation. This had diminished the depth of the lake.

  • Deforestation in water catchment areas has interfered with the water cycle causing low

        rainfall  and less water from feeder rivers. this has led to drying of the lakes

        ii)  – observation                                                                                                                                 

– Taking photographs

– Taking measurements

– Collecting samples

– Interviewing/asking questions

– Reading from secondary sources

     iii) – In order to write the report/summarize the data                                                                       

– So as to a group/process/ analyze the data collected

– so that the various groups can report/discuss the findings from the field

– So as t display any collected samples

– So as to assess the importance of he information collected I the field

– To test samples collected from the field

. c i) -note  taking                                                                                                                            

            -filling in questionnaire


             -field sketching/drawing maps



             -tape recording

   -labelling samples  

       ii) -bad  weather-raining                                                                                                       

             -in accessibility of some area

               -lack of sufficient data

   -illiterate respondent

              -arrogant respondents 

8.          a)i)-  All weather road.                                                                                                     

                  – Loose surface road.

                 – Dry weather road.

             ii )- Formulate hypothesis/objectives.                                                                           

– Makes a short survey/reconnaissance of the area to be studied.

– Preparation of route map.

 – Carrying out literature review/secondary information.

– Organize into groups.

– Make transport arrangements.

– Prepare the necessary stationery and equipment required.

– Prepare a working schedule.

– Seek permission from relevant authorities.

.          b)(i)    –     Assemble equipment                                                                                      

  • Depart for the area of study
  • Report to the factory authorities
  • Embark on data collection
  • Report back to the factory authorities
  • Report back to school

    ii)      – The class will be able to study the entire course of the river                                              

– It will enable them to obtain detailed information on each stage of the river

– It will save on time

– It will enable the study to be carried out in an orderly way

– It will encourage participation of all the members of the class/ encourage individual roles

– It will facilitate more interaction among the group members

9.       a i)  –  Administering questionnaire observation                                                             

– Collecting samples of rocks/ deposits

– Drawing sketches/ diagrams/ maps

– Measuring/ calculating

– Taking photographs

– Reading secondary materials/ content analysis

        ii) – The hot/ scotching sun would make it difficult to collect data                                              

– Torrential rain/ flash floods/ dust storms would disrupt data collection

– The rugged terrain would make it difficult to reach certain features

– Attack by wild animals

          b i)-  Measure distances/ estimation of distances/ heights                                                      

– Collect samples of plants

– Draw sketches/ transects

– Record/ take notes

– Take photographs of plants/ area

– Count plants

                 ii)      –   By their appearance                                                                                     

  • Their colour
  • By their leaf size/ pattern/ arrangement/ type
  • By their age
  • By the nature of their barks
  • By the texture of their leaves

10 .      i)- Graphs                                                                                                                            

          – Pie charts

           – Preparing a written report.

         – Displaying rock samples

          – Displaying photographs.

          – Drawing maps showing distribution of area underlying desertification.

.    b i ) – Breaking the rocks.                                                                                                         

       – Digging the rocks.

       – Collecting samples.

      – Tasting the rocks

      – Observing the rocks                                                                                

ii)- Tiredness because of rugged /steep terrain.                                                                        

             – Lack of testing Material.

           – Inadequate resource materials.

            – Accidents e.g slipping/getting cut by rocks.

                 – Hindrances by poor /harsh weather conditions.

          – Attack by wild animals.

          – Difficulty in carrying heavy rock samples.

                – Difficulty in climbing /ascending steep rocks.

11.       a i) – To determine the type of soil                                                                                   

                  – To find out the soil colour.

                 – To establish the use of the soil

            ii) – Inadequate time for detailed study.                                                                         

   – For further analysis in the lab.

               – Keeping for future reference in the geography room.

         (b) i)      -carried out a reconnaissance /persist                                                               

-identified the tools to be used during the fieldwork

-prepared a working schedule

-asked for permission from relevant authorities

-held discussions in groups

-state the objectives/hypotheses

      ii)  -hostile weather due to heavy rains                                                                                             

-attacks by wild animals

-lack of resource pesos

-some areas were inaccessible

12.       a) i)  -direct observation                                                                                                    

-administering questions

-taking photographs

-taking measurements

-interviewing the local people

ii) -to identify the route                                                                                                       

-to prepare time schedule

-to ask for permission from the local community

-to identify the particular features location

iii) -can be advised on ways of controlling flooding                                                                  

     -can be advised on several uses of the river and need to conserve it

13.      a ) –  long and narrow                                                                                                         

  • some are salty
  • some are fresh
  • some  have underground  outlets e.g Naivasha
  • deep

           b i)      – Helps the researcher to decide on appropriate method of data collection

                – Helps in identifying the appropriate tools to be used during the study

                – Helps the researcher to design a working schedule

                – Helps the researcher identify problems likely to be identified

                – Helps the researcher estimate the cost to be incurred

                – Helps the researcher to familiarize with the area

            ii)         –   Note taking                                                                                                                      

  • Filling in questionnaire
  • Mapping
  • Photography

            . c)i)  – the area is  too wide/extensive                                                                                       

  • some  areas are  inaccessible-steep  slopes
  • harsh weather/weather changes
  • field study  can take  too long

    c) ii)    – report writing                                                                                                                 

  • class  discussions
  • displaying  of  collected samples
  • asking/answering  questions
  • reading more  abut the topic
  • analysis  photographs/tape recorded work/collected samples

14.       a i)     22   x 100  = 13.33


                      = 13.33%                                                                                                                  

         ii)                     2000                           2001                           2002

                        165 000                      318 000                      455000

                        = 406.20                      = 563.914                  = 674.536               

                        r . 2.0                          r 2.81                          r 3.37

b)         –  Moderate to high rainfall/500 – 1270 mm p.a. for growth.                            

– Dry spell for harvesting.

– Warm to hot temps/15 – 200c to facilitate growth/maturity.

– Well drained volcanic soils increases yield.

– Gentle/undulating topography to facilitate mechanization..

c i) In Canada cultivation is highly mechanized while Kenya in Kenya its less.                   

  ii) In Canada wheat is mainly for export while in Kenya its mainly for local  consumption.

 iii) The farms in Canada are more extensive and wide while in Kenya the cultivation is

      done  mainly in small scale.               

d)    – Used in industries to make alcohol and glue.                                                      

                        – Wheat flour is food /bread/ cake.

                        – The wheat stalks are livestock feed.

                        – Straws are used for making papers/ straw gourds/ bedding in cow sheds.

15.     a i)  Firewood    –    13400   x 360     =107.20                                         


                                    Kerosene     –      11200 x 360     = 89.60


            Charcoal     –       9100 x 360      = 72.79


            Liquid petroleum gas – 5300 x 360   = 42.40


             Saw dust   –      4000 x 360    = 32.00


               Hydro electricity – 2000 x 360   = 15.99


 b i)             –  Previsit/ reconnaissance                                                                                      

  • Literature review
  • Class discussion
  • Data collection instruments
  • Preparation of working schedules
  • Obtain permission
  • Transport arrangement

       b ii)              – Discussion of findings                                                                                   

– Write better notes/ draw better diagrams

– Display photographs/ maps/ diagrams

    c) i)  –  Inaccessibility of some parts the to presence of tendrils.                                                   

  • Wild animals’ attack/insects sites.
  • Unfavourable weaken conditions/cold conditions.
  • Rainfall

ii) Height of a tree measure the shadow then calculate.                                                          

Diameter of the stem – use a tape measure.                                                                             

              Trees of the same species – study leaf structures.

    d i)   – Foul smell                                                                                                                         

  • Garbage may habour smokes which are  dangerous.
  • Paths may be blocked.

ii)         – Tree forming should be practiced in the area Ö                                                                     

  • Agro – forestry should be practiced Ö
  • People should be encouraged to use alternative sources of energy/ energy saving jikos  Ö
  • Mature trees felled should be replaced immediately Ö
  • Villagers/ people should be educated on importance of trees Ö
  • Nurseries should be established to provide seedlings Ö
  • Indigenous trees should be planted Ö