1. a) Name the site of gaseous exchange during breathing in mammals.
b) State three characteristics of the site named in (a) above.
2. Why would carboxyhamoglobin lead to death?
3. State two causes of coronary thrombosis
4. What adaptation do red blood cells have for transportation of carbon (IV) oxide?
5. (a) What is Respiration Quotient (RQ)?
(b) (i) Calculate the RQ of the food substance shown by the equation below.
2C51H98O6 + 145 O2 102CO2 + 98H2O + Energy
(ii) Name the food substance being oxidized in b (i) above.
6. Outline three ways in which the gills of Tilapia fish are modified to perform their function.
7. Identify the surfaces of gaseous exchange in the following:-
8. (a) Name two gaseous exchange
(b) Explain how oxygen gets into the haemolymph of an insect
10. (a) Outline two physiological changes that occur in the body to lower the level of Carbon (IV)
Oxide after vigorous physical exercise
(b) Name the site of respiration in a cell
11. What is the importance of counter current flow in the exchange of gases in a fish
12. State four ways in which red blood cells (RBC) are adapted to the their function
13. (a) (i) Where in a cell does glycolysis take place?
(ii) Name the product of the above process
(b) Briefly explain Kreb’s cycle in a plant cell during anaerobic respiration
14. Describe the changes that occur to the rib cage and the diaphragm during inspiration
15. a) What is translocation b) Name two forces that maintain transpiration stream
16. Most carbon (IV) oxide is transported form tissues to the lungs within the red blood cells and not in the blood plasma. Give two advantages of this mode of transport
17. Give a reason why halophytes have pneumatophores
18. Give two characteristics of respiratory surfaces in animals
19. Give a reason for each of the following on mammalian Red blood cells
(a) Absence of the nucleus
(b) Biconcave shape
20. State two ways in which bodies of people living in high altitude areas respond to low oxygen concentration.
21. Explain what would happen to a mammalian Red blood cell 30 minutes alter being placed in distilled water.
22. (a) State two ways in which the surface area of the fish filaments is increased for efficient gaseous exchange.
(b) What is the importance of counter flow system in the filaments of a fish.
23. The apparatus below illustrates breathing in mammal.
Describe what happens if the rubber plug is pulled in the direction shown by the arrow.
24. Describe the path taken by oxygen gas from atmosphere to the tissues of an insect.
25. Why should respiratory surfaces be: (i) Moist
26. The set up below represents an experiment to investigate the process of photosynthesis.
The set up placed in sunlight for six hours.
(a) Why was sodium hydrogen carbonate added to water in this experiment
(b) Explain why the number of bubbles reduced by evening
(c) Explain why the water was used in this experiment
(d) Explain why the water was used in this experiment
27. (a) State two adaptations of red blood cell to its functions
(b) Name two ways in which carbon (IV) Oxide is transported in mammalian blood
28. The diagram below represents an organ from a bony fish. Study the diagram and answer the questions that follow
(a) State the functions of each of the following:
(b) How is the structure labeled C adapted to its function?
29. State how the tracheal system in insects is adapted for gaseous exchange.
30. Differentiate between active immunity and passive immunity
31. Name three sites where gaseous exchange takes place in terrestrial plants.
32. An athlete training to take part in an international competition moved to a high attitude area where
he was to train for twelve days before the competition. He took his pulses per minute daily and
tabulated them as shown below:-
|PULSES PER MINUTE||72||78||89||92||92||90||86||80||77||74||72||72|
a) Other than pulse rate, name one other process which was affected by change of altitude
b) Account for the change in pulse rate from:- i) Day 1 to day 7
ii) Day 8 to day 12
c) Explain the advantage this athlete has over the one who trains in a lower altitude area
d) The equation below represents a reaction which takes place during rapid muscular movements
Glucose Lactic acid + 150KJ
i) State two effects of this reaction to an individual
ii) How is lactic acid finally eliminated from the muscle tissues of the human after the muscle
33. a) State any two structures used for gaseous exchange in plants.
b) Name any two sites where gaseous exchange takes place in a leaf of a terrestrial plant.
c) State any two types of leaves and their respective functions.
d) Briefly describe how stoma opens.
34. The diagram below represents a section of the human respiratory system:
(a) One can inhale through path A, or B. Giving reasons, state the more appropriate path.
(b) How is the part labbelled C adapted for its function?
(c) Explain the effect of regular tobacco smoking to the functioning on the organ labelled D
35. (a) How is the structure of mammalian gaseous exchange system adapted to its functions
(b) Describe the mechanism of opening and closing of the stomata using the photosynthetic
36. (a) Describe the mechanism of inhalation in man.
(b) Using photosynthetic theory explain the mechanism of opening of stomata.
37. In an experiment to investigate a certain processes in a given plant species, the rate of carbon (IV)
oxide consumed and released were measured over a period of time of the day. The results of the
investigation are shown in the table below:
|Time of the day (hours)||6||8||10||12||14||16||18||20||22||24|
|Carbon (IV) oxide consumed in mm3/min||10||43||69||91||91||50||18||0||0||0|
|Carbon (IV) oxide released in mm3/min||38||22||10||3||3||6||31||48||48||48|
b) Name the biochemical processes represented by;
(i) Carbon (IV) oxide consumption
(ii) carbon (IV)oxide release
(c) Account for the shape of the curve for carbon (IV) oxide consumption between;
(i) 6-16 hours
(ii) 20-24 hours
(d) Account for carbon (IV) oxide released between 12-16 hours
(e) (i) What is compensation point?
(ii) From the graph state the time of the day when the plant attains compensation point
(f) Explain how high temperature above optimum affects the rate of carbon (IV) oxide consumption in the plant.