Highlight Features of Songs and Oral Poetry
- Transliteration/ direct translation
- Direct address/ Apostrophe
- Short stanzas/ lines
- Parallelism; uniformity in structure
- Simple vocabulary.
- Figurative language.
Stylistic Devices Used in Songs
Describe the poetic language/structure evident in songs
- Repetition/ refrain
- Rhetorical/ rhetoric questions
- Verse form
- Apostrophe/ Direct Address
Categories or Genres of Songs and Oral Poems
- Work songs
- Love songs
- Political songs
- Religious/ sacred songs
- Wedding songs
- Topical songs.
- Initiation/ circumcision songs
- Funeral songs/ dirges
- War songs
- Teasing/ satirical songs
- Praise/ panegyric songs.
- Lullaby songs
- Children’s play songs/ singing games
- Child naming songs
- Express love for the opposite sex; woo them.
- They can express sorrow at being rejected.
- Either performed by a group or individual.
- They are romantic in nature.
- They can involve dialogue between lovers.
- They are sung by the bride and/ or her companions.
- They are characterized by pomp/ show and celebration.
- They are usually accompanied by drums, shakers, jingles etc
- Praise the pride and groom and their family.
- Express the role of the bride and that of the groom.
- Express sorrow of leaving home and parting with friends.
- Warn of the challenges likely to be faced at groom’s place.
- Enhance happy mood during the wedding time.
- They are sung in preparation for, during and after war by warriors.
- They are highly repetitive.
- Express fighter’s prowess/ heroism and courage.
- Are exaggerated.
- May scorn/ condemn opponent.
- Praise political leaders.
- Sung with lots of gusto/ enthusiasm/ passion/ enjoyment/ delight/ pleasure/ zest.
- They have stanzas and a chorus.
- They are structurally repetitive.
- They are slow and solemn.
- They have steady rhythm.
- They address a supreme being and emphasize people’s helplessness.
- They are hardly accompanied except with sounds of work tools.
- They are fast so as to create rhythm for work.
- They are repeated over to last the duration of the job at hand.
- They may extol/ praise hardwork and denounce/ condemn laziness.
- They may ridicule/ condemn/ deride a known miser or lazy person in the community.
Initiation/ Circumcision songs
- They are sung by initiates and elders.
- They have elaborate accompaniments like shakers, horns, drums etc
- They encourage the initiates to be brave.
- They mock cowardice.
- They emphasize the new roles of the initiates as men and women the community.
- They appreciate forefathers of the community for upholding and bequeathing/ living this tradition for them.
- They raise the bravery of the initiates.
Dirges/ Funeral songs
- They are sung by mourners.
- They are somber/ sad/ melancholic.
- They are repetitive.
- They may be fast or slow.
- They are accompanied with a lot of drumming and dancing to cheer up the bereaved.
- They express sorrow and disbelief at the loss of loved one.
- They praise the achievement and virtues of the dead.
- They are sung softly.
- Are repetitive.
- Have slow rocking rhythm.
- Have soothing words that even lying to the child. Some lie that mother has gone away to bring the child a tantalizing/ enticing/alluring gift.
They are short and quick-changing from song to song to avoid children getting bored.They are repetitive.They are characterized with mockery/ ridicule.Are highly playful.Are rhythmic.